Role of Communication

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I1
1.LISTENING STRATEGIES1
2.EASY/DIFFICULTY IN LISTENING TASK3
3.USE OF NON-VERBAL LANGUAGE4
4.GUIDELINES FOR LISTENING TASK4
5.SUGGESTIONS FOR EFFECTIVE LISTENING5
PART II7
ROLE OF COMMUNICATION7
1.INTRODUCTION7
2. DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION7
3. REASONS FOR INTERACTION WITH OTHERS8
3.1. TO ESTABLISH RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER PEOPLE8
3.2. TO SATISFY PERSONAL NEEDS8
3.3. TO FULFIL OUR PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS8
3.4. TO PERSUADE PEOPLE AND CREATE CHANGE8
3.5. TO FURTHER IMPROVE AND MAINTAIN OUR SENSE OF SELF9 3.6. TO MANAGE CONFLICT9
4. CAUSES OF MISUNDERSTANDING/MISCOMMUNICATION9
5. FACTORS AFFECTING OUR PERCEPTION OF OTHERS9
5.1. EMOTIONAL STATE9
5.2. HALO EFFECT10
5.3. STEREOTYPING10
5.4. ASSUMED SIMILARITY10
5.5. SELECTIVE PERCEPTION10
5.6. PERCEPTUAL DEFENCE11
6. COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS IN AN INTERCULTURAL SITUATION11
7. NON-VERBAL MESSAGES/CUES FOR HELPING/HINDERING COMMUNICATION11 8. FACTORS CONSIDERED FOR EFFECTIVE ORAL COMMUNICATION12

PART I

Program: News On Two
Date: 1st July 2003
Time: 8.00 PM
Channel: Two

1.Listening Strategies
Specific strategies used during watching and listening the News On TWO program includes: - Preparing to listen
Being prepared also means getting into the right mental attitude – ready to maintain attention, increase awareness and elicit comprehension. Be Interested
The existence of self-interest for a particular TV program would motivate the person to watch and listen enjoyably. Keep an open mind
Being an open-minded means being aware of own prejudices, do not feel insulted or resistant to messages that contradict own beliefs, attitudes, ideas, and values. This is especially true in relation to the world news on the attack of Central Baghdad and the explosion at Fallujah. Listen critically

This consists of critically analysing the news message in order to determine how truthful, authentic, or believable we judge it to be. If we fail to listen critically to the messages we receive, we risk inadvertently concurring in ideas that may violate own values. Listen for the main news headlines

It is quite impossible to remember every single news mentioned in the program, thus, it is crucial to pay close attention to the main news headlines. This is selective attention or when we only attend certain stimuli while filtering out others. Notes taking

Although taking notes would be inappropriate in relation to regional and world news but appropriate for recording football results in sport news for further references. By engaging in taking notes, we take a more active role in the listening process. 2.Easy/Difficulty in Listening Task

Both presenters used a clear language and allowed listeners to share clear understanding of the news. However, there exist some common listening problems: - Allowing distractions to interfere
Listeners are usually being distracted by the woman presenter’s dress, appearance and beauty. Listening only to easy material
Giving up on boring or difficult material is the listening disorder of tuning out the presenters and their messages for fear that they will be too dull. This behaviour limits our opportunity to gain insight from what might have been an important message. Becoming over stimulated

Listeners are too involved in the presenter’s message reaching a fed up point while the presenter is still presenting material. Thereby dismissing the rest of the message. Selective listening
Some listeners fill in the gaps. That is, they mistakenly believe they know enough about the presenters subject to add what’s missing or finish the thought on their own. Listeners who indulge in mentally inserting their own information in place of the presenter’s often come away with a message that is vastly different from the one presented. 3.Use of Non-Verbal Language

During a short break, the program also uses nonverbal communication when it presents...
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