Robust control systems may successfully be designed by ~'=-optimization, in particular, by reformulating the design problem as a mixed sensitivity problem.
Key Words--~=-optimal control; robust control.
Abstract--The paper presents a tutorial exposition of
~=-optimal regulation theory, emphasizing the relevance of
the mixed sensitivity problem for robust control system
design.
1. INTRODUCTION
THE INVESTIGATION OF ~®-optimization of control
systems began in 1979 with a conference paper by
Zames (1979), who considered the minimization of
the oo-norm of the sensitivity function of a
single-input-single-output linear feedback system.
The work dealt with some of the basic questions of
"classical" control theory, and immediately caught a
great deal of attention. It was soon extended to more
general problems, in particular when it was recognized
that the approach allows dealing with robustness far
more directly than other optimization methods.
The name "~K~-optimization" is somewhat unfortunate.
~® is one member of the family of spaces
introduced by the mathematician Hardy. It is the
space of functions on the complex plane that are
analytic and bounded in the right-half plane. The
space plays an important role in the deeper
mathematics needed to solve K-optimal control
problems.
This paper presents a tutorial exposition of the
subject. The emphasis is on explaining the relevance
of K-optimization for control engineering. The paper
presents few new results, and does not at all do justice
to the extensive theoretical and mathematical
literature on the subject. The presentation is limited
to single-input-single-output (SISO) control systems.
Many of the arguments carry over to the multi-input-
* Received 6 February 1992; revised 6 July 1992; received
in final form 23 August 1992. The original version of this
paper was presented at the IFAC Symposium on Design
Methods of Control Systems which was held in Ziirich,
Switzerland during...

...literature on benchmarking
practices in order to achieve better perspectives for emerging benchmarking research streams.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines the benchmarking literature and presents a
framework that suggests evolving patterns of ﬁrms’ benchmarking practices. This paper examines the
studies published in Benchmarking: An International Journal and other articles related to
benchmarking practices in major Strategic Management, OM/SCM, and Technology Management
journals from 2001 to 2010.
Findings – Benchmarking remains an important strategic tool of business in turbulent times. Five
research dimensions for benchmarking are discussed in terms of the following: strategy-based
benchmarking; operational effectiveness-based benchmarking; technical efﬁciency-based benchmarking;
and micro-macro integrative benchmarking. For sustainable competitive advantage, benchmarking
goes beyond the operational level and moves into a wide range of value chain, strategic, operational, and
project levels.
Research limitations/implications – The study contributes to the benchmarking literature by
identifying key areas of benchmarking. It reﬂects a qualitative orientation, but future research may
achieve a more systematic and quantitative analysis of the benchmarking literature.
Originality/value – This review paper is unique in that it examines the benchmarking literature and
summarizes the results in order to...

...Management Control:
1) Identify and discuss the control alternatives used in the selected company. Is each form of control loose or tight? What is the overall impression of the selected company’s Management Control System? Why?
1- People Controls
a) Personnel controls:
Selection:
Personality is the most important asset that H&M employees have. H&M believes that people who are allowed to be themselves do a better job, which is why H&M welcomes diversity and personal style.
H&M believes in theirs people, and always encourage new ideas and initiatives.
Over the last five years,H&M growth created a net job contribution of accumulated 24,019 full-time equivalent jobs globally. This amounts to an average net creation of more than 4,800 jobs or 10% per year.
Training:
In 2010 H&M introduced a new programme for all employees, the H&M Incentive Program, which aims to encourage long term commitment and support future recruitment. This program prevents myopia.
All employees of the H&M group, regardless of their position or salary level, are included in the programme and are rewarded to the length of their employment and whether they work full-time or part-time.
The rapid expansion of H&M requires ensuring that...

...Infinity
There is only one being, continuous, material, and motionless.
Let's take a moment to examine a number line.
<----|----|----|----|----|----|----|----|----|----|----|----|----|----|---->
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70
It's pretty simple to understand. The line represents a distance, and the
"|" characters symbolize different points on the line-the exact points are
differentiated by the number below them.
Any number line is understood to have contain points which aren't
necessarily designated by a number. For example, on the above number line we
know that between 5 and 10 we can find the point 7. This example is illustrated
below.
<----|-|--|---->
5 7 10
In fact, it is understood that there are an infinite number of points on
any number line. Between 5 and 7 we can find the points 5.009852, 5.9, 6,
6.262623627000029873257690125762, 6.3336, 6.999, 6.9999, etc.
Rulers are examples of how we might commonly use a number line. Different
rulers mark off different distances such as yards, feet, inches, centimeters,
millimeters, and so on. Obviously rulers cannot be used to measure all
distances because some distances may be too small to be measured practically
with the naked eye.
Hypothetically speaking, let's say you had a worm and a razor blade. Let's
also hypothesize that this particular worm is two inches long. Now if you were
to cut this worm exactly in...

...MATH-2640 MATH-264001
This question paper consists of 3 printed pages, each of which is identiﬁed by the reference MATH-2640 Only approved basic scientiﬁc calculators may be used.
c UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS Examination for the Module MATH-2640 (January 2003)
Introduction to Optimisation
Time allowed: 2 hours Attempt four questions. All questions carry equal marks. In all questions, you may assume that all functions f (x1 , . . . , xn ) under consideration are sufﬁciently ∂2f ∂2f continuous to satisfy Young’s theorem: fxi xj = fxj xi or ∂xi ∂xj = ∂xj ∂xi . The following abbreviations, consistent with those used in the course, are used throughout for commonly occurring optimisation terminology: LPM – leading principal minor; PM – (non-leading) principal minor; CQ – constraint qualiﬁcation; FOC – ﬁrst-order conditions; NDCQ – non-degenerate constraint qualiﬁcation; CSC – complementary slackness condition; NNC – non-negativity constraint.
Q1 (a) You are given that the formula for the total differential at the point x0 of a function f of n variables x1 , . . . , xn is
1 δf (x0 ) = δx· f (x0 ) + 2 (δx)T H(x0 )(δx) + O |δx|3 ,
where x = (x1 , . . . , xn )T , the Hessian of f at x0 .
∂ ∂ ≡ ( ∂x1 , . . . , ∂xn )T is the n-dimensional gradient operator and H(x0 ) is
(i) Deﬁne: the total differential in terms of f , x0 and δx; the Hessian matrix H in terms of f and x0 ; the kth LPM of the Hessian H....

...I. Abstract
The query optimizer is an important system component of a relational database management system (DBMS). It is the responsibility of this component to translate the user-submitted query - usually written in a non the database. The research literature describes a wide variety of optimization strategies for different quer y languages and implementation environments. However, very little is known about how to design and structure the queryoptimization component to implement these strategies. This paper proposes a first step towards the design of a modular query optimizer. We describe its operations by transformation rules which generate different QEPs from initial query specifications. As we distinguish different aspects of the query optimization process, our hope is that the approach taken in this paper will contribute to the more general goal of a modular query optimizer as part of an extensible database management system. -procedural language - into an efficient query evaluation plan (QEP) which is then executed against
II. INTRODUCTION:
Query optimization is a function of many relational database in which multiple query for satisfying a query are examined and a good query plan is identified. This may or not be the absolute best strategy because there are many ways of doing plans. There is a trade-off between the amount of time spent figuring out the best plan and...

...hurt his head seriously and it is believed caused by hitting by hard object.
Police also reported that during Chi working at 1 a.m. on 4th July, the hot weather warning signal was announced. Police believe that Chi fell dizzy and eventually hit a hard object after fall from 1.5m height.
Study of the working environment
The accident is happened in a transportation container, which we can discuss it generally from its design and recognize the potential hazards in that kind of working environment.
Design:
The involved transportation container is 40 ft. long, which is the regular size container used in international shipping for large amount of goods. The standard size of a 40 ft. long container is about 12.19m (L) x 2.35m (W) x 2.38m (H). The inside capacity can reach 67m3 and maximum weight is 30,480 kg standard from (Port Container Services Australian, 2005). The container are mainly solid steel structure with standard double doors. The working environment in container are belongs to enclosed area which it do not have any ventilation system installed, when the doors are enclosed, there are almost zero air movement within the container.
Legislation:
Since the transportation container without any air ventilation, the air movement is extremely poor inside. Base on Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Confined Spaces) Regulation, 1999, section 2, "confined space" means any place in which, by virtue of its enclosed nature, there arises a reasonably...

...SCHOOL OF FINANCE AND APPLIED STATISTICS
FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS
(STAT 2032 / STAT 6046)
TUTORIAL SOLUTIONS WEEK 8
Question 1
This question refers to two projects relating to a small software company that has asked
to set up a new computer system for a major client. :
Project A
Project A delegates all the development work to outside companies. The estimated
cashflows for Project A are (where brackets indicate expenditure):
Beginning of year 1
Beginning of year 2
Beginning of year 3
End of year 3
contractors’ fees
contractors’ fees
contractors’ fees
sales
($150,000)
($250,000)
($250,000)
$1,000,000
Project B
Project B carries out all the development work in-house by purchasing the necessary
equipment and using the company’s own staff. The estimated cashflows for Project B are:
Beginning of year 1
Throughout year 1
Throughout year 2
Throughout year 3
End of year 3
new equipment
staff costs
staff costs
staff costs
sales
($325,000)
($75,000)
($90,000)
($120,000)
$1,000,000
The staff costs can be assumed to be paid uniformly throughout the year.
(a) Calculate the net present value for Project A and Project B using a risk discount
rate of 10% per annum. Using net present value as a criterion, which project is
preferable?
(b) Find the internal rates of return for Project A and Project B, and hence determine
which project is more favourable using this criterion.
1
Solution
(a)
For Project A, the net...

...MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEM
GROUP TASK
SUMMARY
Controls for Differentiated Strategies
PRESENTED BY
FINA ELWASISTE 0910534030
M. ALVICKY SATYWARDANA 1210534006
MUHAMMAD IRVAN ADHA 1210534022
INTERNATIONAL ACCCOUNTING
2014
Controls for Differentiated Strategies
Focus of chapter is Contingency Theory: A specific structure and process for an organization depends upon various external and internal factors.
Research studies have identified important factors that influence control system design:
Size
Business Environment
Technology
Interdependence
Strategies
Corporate Strategy
Logic for linking controls to strategy depends on:
Different organizations operate in different strategic contexts.
Different strategies require different:
Task priorities
Key success factors
Skills
Perspectives
Behavior patterns
Control systems are measurement systems that influence people being measured
The design of the control system should be monitored for behavior induced by system is consistent with corporate strategy.
Implications for Organization Structure
Corporate strategy is a continuum line from a single industry strategy to an unrelated diversification strategy on the other pole.
Various corporate strategies imply different organization structures and different control systems. Review (Exhibit 13.1)
At the single industry pole companies tend to be...

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