Robotics in Surgery
Snehal S. Mayekar
Department of Biomedical Engineering,
YTIET, Bhivpuri Road, Karjat.
Objective: Tracking the progress of new Robotic Surgery techniques, their limitations and future scope. Background: The field of robotics has the potential to alter how we live in the 21st century. This paper explores the Surgical Robotic Systems in use, their applications during different surgeries and the future scope. Method:
Articles describing the developments as well as applications of surgical robots were used for the subject matter. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is a modern and exciting emerging technology that is taking the surgical profession by storm. Up to this point, however, it is beyond the reach of the common man. Also, at present the robots are mere ‘mimics’ of the surgeon, needing human intervention for their operations. Future systems might include the ability for a surgeon to program the surgery and merely supervise as the robot performs most of the tasks. Further research must evaluate cost effectiveness or a true benefit over conventional therapy, for robotics in surgery to take full root.
Index Terms— Applications, computer-assisted surgery (CAS), human–machine interface, laparoscopy, miniature.
obotic surgery is proving to be more efficient and effective than manual surgery in many aspects. A robot is able to create much more precise cuts than a human can with a scalpel, which can often mean less bleeding and less discomfort for the patient. Incisions made by the robots can be as small as dime-sized, leading to a drastic difference in the amount of time the patient has to stay at the hospital for
recovery. The motivation to develop surgical robots is rooted in the desire to overcome the limitations of current
laparoscopic technologies and to expand benefits of minimum invasive surgery.
This paper is divided into sections focusing on the historical as well as the latest robotic systems in use, how they are used during a surgery, their pros and cons and the future projects.
As will be seen, robots do not actually replace humans but rather improve their ability to operate through the small incisions. In programming these devices, considerable effort is put into creating proper algorithms, accurate sensors, and improved human-machine interfaces.
Even if nothing is ever one hundred percent safe, devices have the potential to be fatal if they malfunction. Therefore, considerable consternation exists in the medical field over these equipments..
Nevertheless, robotic arms can access the body much easily through the small incisions than a surgeon can, and can integrate large amounts of data and images to access areas deep within the body with precision. And though they cannot process qualitative information to make judgments during the surgery, they are still able to filter out hand tremors and scale the surgeon’s large movements into smaller ones in the patient. It is evident from the above facts that, ‘The Robotic Surgery is the future of Surgery.’
CHAPTER 1: SURGICAL ROBOTIC SYSTEMS
A. Development of Surgical Robotic Systems
A high-tech medical device company Computer Motion played a very important role in developing early surgical robotic technology. The company was founded in 1989 with a goal to revolutionize surgical practices and to improve patient lives. They specialized in medical robotics and developed a baseline for integrated robotic surgery. The company designed and manufactured systems for the Intelligent Operating Room™ of the future and made a significant...
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