Robotic Surgery

Topics: Surgery, Robotic surgery, Da Vinci Surgical System Pages: 11 (3127 words) Published: March 17, 2013


Robotic surgery, computer-assisted surgery, and robotically-assisted surgery are terms for technological developments that use robotic systems to aid in surgical procedures.

Robotically-assisted surgery was developed to overcome both the limitations of minimally invasive surgery or to enhance the capabilities of surgeons performing open surgery. In the case of robotically assisted minimally invasive surgery, instead of directly moving the instruments, the surgeon uses one of two methods to control the instruments ; either a direct telemanipulator or by computer control

One advantage of using the computerised method is that the surgeon does not have to be present, indeed the surgeon could be anywhere in the world, leading to the possibility for remote surgery. In the case of enhanced open surgery, autonomous instruments (in familiar configurations) replace traditional steel tools, performing certain actions (such as rib spreading) with much smoother, feedback-controlled motions than could ever be achieved by a human hand. The main object of such smart instruments is to reduce or eliminate the tissue trauma traditionally associated with open surgery without requiring more than a few minutes' training on the part of surgeons. This approach seeks to improve that lion's share of surgeries, particularly cardio-thoracic, that minimally invasive techniques have so failed to supplant


1. Introduction

2. History

3. Applications

3. Advantages

4. Disadvantages

5. Robotics surgical technology

6. Future scope

7. Conclusion


Circa 1941: Second World War; D-day, Normandy.
A soldier in a far off battlefield with a life threatening injury, with no doctor in sight for hundreds of kilometres. The nearest hospital is thousand kilometres away. He needs to beoperated upon right away. He dies.

Now Imagine : An army ranger is riddled with shrapnel deep behind enemy lines. Diagnostics from wearable sensors signal a physician at a nearby mobile army surgical hospital that his services are needed urgently. The ranger is loaded into an armored vehicle outfitted with arobotic surgery system. Within minutes, he is undergoing surgery performed by the physician who is seated at a control console 100 kilometers out of harm's way. The patient is saved .This is the power that the amalgamation of technology and surgical sciences are offering Doctors. Just as computers revolutionized the latter half of the 20th century, the field of robotics has hepotential to equally alter how we live in the 21st century. We've already seen how robots have changed the manufacturing of cars and other consumer goods by streamlining and speeding up the assembly line. We even have robotic lawn mowers and robotic pets now. And robots have enabled us to see places that humans are not yet able to visit, such as other planets and the depths of the ocean. In the coming decades, we will see robots that have artificial intelligence ,coming to resemble the humans that create them. They will eventually become self-aware and conscious, and be able to do anything that a human can. When we talk about robots doing the tasks of humans, we often talk about the future, but the future of Robotic surgery is already


In 1985 a robot, the PUMA 560 was used to place a needle for a brain biopsyusing CT guidance. In 1988, the PROBOT, developed at Imperial College London,was used to perform prostatic surgery. The ROBODOC from Integrated SurgicalSystems was introduced in 1992 to mill out precise fittings in the femur for hipreplacement. Further development of robotic systems was carried out by IntuitiveSurgical with the introduction of the da Vinci Surgical System and ComputerMotion with the AESOP and the ZEUS robotic surgical system.

The da Vinci Surgical System comprises three components: a...
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