Robotic Surgery

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  • Topic: Surgery, Da Vinci Surgical System, Robotic surgery
  • Pages : 7 (2697 words )
  • Download(s) : 392
  • Published : April 28, 2007
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Introduced in 1987, Robots were used in the first Laparoscopic surgery, a cholescystecotomy, to be exact. (Lee 45).Also known by names such as keyhole surgery, bandaid surgery, or minimally invasive surgery (MIS), Laparoscopic surgery is a surgical technique referring to operations within the abdomen or pelvic region. (Lee 45).More specifically speaking, it belongs to the field of endoscopy. (Lee 45).The first robots used in the surgery consisted of a Hopkins rod lens system, that was usually connected to a video camera (single chip or three chip), and a fiber optic cable system connected to a 'cold' light source (halogen or xenon) that was used to illuminate the area being operated on. (Vertut and Coiffet 97). Because incisions were made smaller, this robot-dependent surgery was known to be less invasive than preceding surgical methods. Because their was less intrusion in the body, the risk of infection was reduced, hospital stays were shorter, and recuperation time was reduced.(Vertut and Coiffet 97)Since this implementation of Robots as an assistant in delicate operations, numerous procedures have been performed laparascopically as both technology and skills of surgeons have advanced. Despite the advantages of using Robots in surgery, there were several disadvantages of using them. For example, the equipment used required a surgeon to move in the opposite direction of the target on the monitor in order to interact with the patient's area of operation so that hand-eye coordination, force feedback, and dexterity were not compromised.(Hohman 2) Additionally, other disadvantages were restricted degrees of motion, increased sense of touch, and increased sensitivity to hand movement, all problems in which modern robotics would aim to correct.(Hohman 2) As robots began to become more prevalent in the medical field, Researchers at the NASA(National Air and Space Administration) Ames Research Center began work on an concept known as telepresence surgery; commonly known as telesurgery. (Vertut and Coiffet 68)Combining virtual reality, robots, and medicine this type of robotic surgery would defy traditional surgeon-patient relations. By the early 1990's scientist from the NASA-Ames team joined Stanford Research Institute (SRA) surgeons to develop a telemanipulator for hand surgery. (Vertut and Coiffet 68)Dr. Dave Williams of the Canadian Space Agency spearheaded a project that would test this specific type of Robotic surgery.(Vertut and Coiffet 68) With the use of satellites to relay the signals needed to connect a surgeon's console to a robot, Telesurgery would allow surgeon's to reasonably operate on a patient just about anywhere signals are received. (Vertut and Coiffet 68) In due time, surgeons and endoscopists joined the ambitious development team to give the project a full spectrum of experts.(Vertut and Coiffet 68) Williams, also an astronaut, reveals that NASA has no plans to test robotic surgery on any of the next few shuttle missions; however he would like to see it done one day in the future. (Hohman 3)Though NASA is not quite as comfortable as they would like to be with robotics in space, here on earth Robotic surgery is being heavily invested in. Canada, in particular, has invested in telesurgery heavily. (Vertut and Coiffet 69) Because of the country's vast land, including many rural communities, it is in Canada's best interest to give inhabitants an opportunity have the best and most modern healthcare. Dr. Williams speaks on this issue when saying "Depending upon where you are on Earth, there's a difference in the level of healthcare that exists—in many cases, just due to the geographic isolation of the area that you're in," to stress the necessity of Robotics in an area where immediate attention is hard to find when the need for it arises. (Hohman 1) As for now, robotic surgery is limited to the conventional settings of a hospital operating room. Despite this fact, robotic surgery is gaining widespread approval for...
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