Technology, Society, and Culture
Introduction: Robotic Surgery
Robotic surgery is the latest development that uses robots and computer aided apparatus to aid in normal surgical procedures. It is a new technology and mostly used in well-developed countries. With robotic surgery a single surgeon is able not only to perform multiple surgeries but also do his/her work from any part of the world (McConnell, Schneeberger & Michler, 2003). Robotic surgery is a type of procedure that is similar to laparoscopic surgery. It also can be performed through smaller surgical cuts than traditional open surgery. There are small precise movements that are possible with this type of surgery. It gives some advantages over standard endoscopic techniques. Sometimes robotic-assisted laparoscopy can allow a surgeon to perform a less-invasive procedure that was once only possible with more invasive open surgery. Once it is placed in the abdomen, a robotic arm is easier for the surgeon to use than the instruments in endoscopic surgery. The robot reduces the surgeon’s movements. The robot assistance reduces some of the hand tremors and movements that might otherwise make the surgery less precise. Robotic instruments can access hard-to-reach areas of your body more easily through smaller incisions compared to traditional open and laparoscopic surgery. This procedure is done under general anesthesia where you are asleep and pain free. The surgeon sits at a computer station nearby and directs the movements of a robot. Small instruments are attached to the robot's arms. Under the surgeon's direction, the robot matches the doctor's hand movements to perform the procedure using the tiny instruments. A thin tube with a camera attached to the end of it called an endoscope, allows the surgeon to view highly magnified three-dimensional images of your body on a monitor in real time.
I.What is Robotic Surgery? A.Robotic Surgery, computer-assisted surgery, and robotically assisted surgery are terms for technological developments that use robotic systems to aid in surgical procedures. B.Robotically assisted surgery was developed to overcome both the limitations of minimally invasive surgery or to enhance the capabilities of surgeons performing open surgery. II.History of Robotic Surgery
A.In 1985 a robot, the PUMA 560 was used to place a needle for a brain biopsy using CT guidance. B.In 1988, the PROBOT, developed at Imperial College London, was used to perform prostatic surgery. C.In 1992 to mill out precise fittings in the femur for hip replacement. III.Associated Science with Robotic Surgery
A.Robots are or will assist urologists with transurethral resection of the prostate, percutaneous renal access, laparoscopy, and brachytherapy. B.The goals of the robots are to facilitate and improve the techniques and procedures of urological surgery. IV.Political Point of View of Robotic Surgery
A.Communication and engagement
B.Regulation and governance
D.Looking for applications
E.The wider landscape
V.Legal Influences of Robotic Surgery
A.Legal aspects are likely to pose obstacles to the developments B.Promotional materials overestimate the benefits of Robotic Surgery C.Should a surgeon be held liable for errors related
While surgical robotics will have an important impact on surgical practice, it presents challenges are so much in the monarchy of Political and legal laws as of medicine and health care.
VI.Economical considerations for the use of robotic surgery A.Brief economic definition/overview.
1.The use of scarce resources to do more.
B.The economics of robotic surgery.
1.The goal: “Keeping patients ‘whole’ and fully functional after surgery” while reducing complications and costs. VII.The costs of robotic surgery...