The Rise Of Filipino Nationalism
-Nationalism was said to have a rooted from a strong feeling among populace that they belong to the same race. such sentiment has not yet existed in the philippines prior to the 19th century. although the cultural traits of early filipinos had striking similarities, their linguistic differences as well as the local autonomy of each political unit in archipelago barely yielded to the development of this national sentiment. The following have been regarded in history as factors that gave rise of filipino nationalism : 1. Spread of liberalism- When spain gradually exposed the philippines to international commerce in the late 18th and 19th centuries, liberal ideas from europe filtered in.When spain opened the philippines ports in 1834 to free trade, commercialization of philippine agriculture and economic expansion greatly benefited the PRINCIPALIA in the country. 1869-The dissipation of european and american liberalism in the country was even facilitated with the opening of the suez canal. 2. Sentiment against the principles- The masses had been skeptical about the local aristocracy due to their proprtion of influence in the society. the ilocano insurresction in 1815 was a manifestation of the people's cry to mass movement. 3.Racial prejudice- the spaniards commonly regarded the filipino natives as belonging to the "inferior race" and haughtily called them as INDIOS. Spanish colonizers that the natives could not rise their " limited intelegence"instigated the enlightened filipinos to struggle for equality. jose Rizal's annotationof antonio de morga's SUCESOS DE LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS denounced the allegations of the spaniards thet the filipinos were savages and had no culture prior to the coming of western colonozers. 4. Culural changes- the educational reforms of 1863 dramatically improved the standards of education in primary level. with the implementation of a new educational system, qualified filipinos were able to pursue higher education. 5. Secularization controversy- the mandatory provision of the council of trent (1545-1563) affirmed that secular priests be appointed to administer the parishes in the colony. Due to lack of secular priests, Pope Pius V issued on 1567, upon the request of king Philip II, the Exponi Nobis, which allowed the regular clergy (Those belonging to monastic orders) to serve as parish priests without diocesan authorization and be exempted from bishop's authority. The paishes vacated by jesuits ( Expelled in the country in 1768) were given to the native seculars. The royal decree, which was promulgated on novenber 9, 1774 ordering the secularization of the parishes ( or the turnover of parishes supervised by regular clergy to the seculars), became the basis for the appointment of native secular clergy. however, this royal decree was suspended in 1776 owing to friar opposition, as well as the unpreparedness of the native priests. 1859- the return of the jesuits as well as the policy of desecularization directly affected the native seculars. 1870's-Overt oppostion against the abuse of spanish officials and agitation for reforms became evident among filipino clergy. December 1870- Archbishop Martinez wrote to the spanish regent advocating secularization and mentioned that descrimination against filipino priests would encourage anti-Spanish sentiments. 6. Cavite Mutiny of 1872
1868-A revolution led by liberals in spain deposed queen isabella II and gave rise to the provisional republic of spai. with the victory of the spanish revolution, many colonial officials democratic ideals were sent to manila, which include governor general carlos maria de la torre in 1869. The republican government was overruled with the restoration of monarchy. Amadeo, son of King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy accepted the invitation to assume the Spanish Crown in December 1870. When Rafael de Izquierdo replaced Governor de la Torre in 1871, he promptly discarded the liberal measures. As an...
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