I. RIZAL LAW
* The full name of the law is An Act to Include in the Curricula of All Public and Private Schools, Colleges and Universities Courses On the Life, Works and Writings of Jose Rizal, Particularly His Novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, authorizing the printing and distribution, and for Other Purposes. * Opposed by Roman Catholics due to the contents of Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo * Allowed translation of the works of Rizal for national education purposes * Authorized by Claro M. Recto
* Sponsored by Jose P. Laurel in the senate
* The Republic Act was signed by the President on June 12, 1956,(Independence day) in order to stir patriotism nationalism in every Filipino
II. THE WORLD DURING RIZAL’S TIME
* Italians and Germans succeeded in unifying their own countries * The Italians under the leadership of Count Cavour and of Garibaldi and his army of “Red Shirts” drove out the Austrians and French armies from Italy and proclaimed the Kingdom of Italy under King Victor Emmanuel with Rome as Capital. * The Prussians led by Otto von Bismarck, the “Iron Chancellor” defeated France in the Franco-Prussian war and established the German Empire on Jan. 18, 1871, with King Wilhelm of Prussia as the First Kaiser of the German Empire. * With the defeat of Emperor Napoleon his Second French Empire Collapsed and over its ruin the Third French Republic arose, with Adolph Thiers as first President.
B. WHAT RIZAL WITNESSED:
* England emerged as the world’s leading imperialist power. * During glorious reign of Queen Victoria the British people asserted: Britannia Rules the Waves.” * Britain won in the First Opium war (1840-1842) against the tottering Chinese Empire under the Manchu dynasty, and acquired the island of HongKong (Fragrant Harbor) * In the Second Opium War (1856-1860) Britain won again and forced the Manchu Dynasty to cede Kowloon Peninsula. * After suppressing the Indian Rebellion and dismantling the Mogul Empire, she imposed her raj (rule) over the sub-continent of India. (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) * By winning the Three Anglo-Burmese war, she conquered Burma. * Other lands in Asia that became British colonies:
* Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Maldives, Aden, Malaya, Singapore and Egypt. * In South Pacific they were able to get Australia and New Zealand.
C. IMPERIALIST COUNTRIES THAT FOLLOWED BRITAIN’S EXAMPLE: * France – Vietnam, annexed Cambodia and Laos. Then merged all these countries into a federated colony under the name French Indochina. * Dutch – colonized the vast and rich archipelago of the East Indies and named it the Netherlands East Indies (now Indonesia). * Czarist Russia – conquered Siberia, Kamchatka, Kuriles, and Alaska ( which she sold in 1867 to the U.S. for $7,200,000. * She also conquered the Muslim Khanates of Bokhara, Khiva, and Kokand in Central Asia. * They also acquired Manchuria and as a “sphere of influence” they were able to build the 5,800-mile Trans-Siberian Railway, reputed to be “the world’s longest railroad” linking Vladivostok and Moscow. * July 8, 1853, an American squadron under the command of Commodore Mathew C. Perry re-opened Japan to the world. (214-year isolation) * Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito) modernized Japan by freely accepting Western Influences, including Imperialism. Fought against the weak China in the Sino-Japanese war, grabbed Formosa (Taiwan), Pescadores and later annexed Korea. * Germany was late in scramble for colonies in Asia and Africa, turned to the Islands in the Mid-Pacific world. * Ilties a German warship entered the harbor of Yap (an island in the Carolines) seized the island and hoisted the German flag. * Strangely, the Spanish Governor of the Carolines (Don Enrique Capriles) was present in the island but showed no resistance. * The German seizure of Yap island enraged Spain who claimed sovereignty over the...
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