January 28, 1890 – Rizal left Paris for Brussels
Brussels– capital of Belgium.
Two reasons why Rizal leave Paris:
1. The cost of living in Paris was very high because of the Universal Exposition.
2. The gay social life of the city hampered his literary works, especially the writing of his second novel El Filibusterismo.
Life in Brussels
Jose Albert – accompanied Rizal to move to Brussels.
Jose Alejandro – an engineering student who replaced Jose Albert.
Rizal was busy writing his second novel.
He wrote articles for La Solidaridad and letters for his family and friends.
He spent part of his time in medical clinic.
He had gymnastics at the gymnasium and target practice and fencing at the armory.
Articles Published in La Solidaridad
1. “A La Defensa” (To La Defensa), April 30, 1889 - This was a reply to an anti-Filipino writing of a Spanish author Patricio de la Escosura which was published by La Defensa on March 30, 1889.
2. “La verdad Para Todos” ( The Truth For All), May 31, 1889 - Rizal's defense against the Spanish charges that the Filipinos were ignorant and depraved.
3. “Vicente Barrantes’ Teatro Tagalo,” June 15, 1889 – Rizal exposes Barrantes’ ignorance on the Tagalog theatritical art.
4. “Una Profanacion” (A Profanation), July 31, 1889 – Bitter attack against the friars for denying Christian burial to Mariano Herbosa, husband of Lucia, died of cholera on May 30, 1889.
5. “Verdades Nuevas” (New Truths), July 31, 1889 – A reply to Vicente Belloc Sanchez’ letter published in Madrid newspaper, on July 4, 1889, which asserted that the granting of reforms in the Philippines would ruin the “peaceful and maternal rule” in the Philippines.
6. “Crueldad” (Cruelty), August 15, 1889 – A brilliant defense of Blumentritt from the scurrilous attacks of his enemies.
7. “Differencias” (Differences), September 15, 1889 – A reply to a biased article “Old Truths” published in La Patria on August 14, 1889, which ridiculed those Filipinos who asked for reforms.
8. “Inconsequencias” (Inconsequences), November 30, 1889 – A defense of Antonio Luna against the attack of Pablo Mir Deas in the Barcelona newspaper El Pueblo Soberano.
9. “Llanto y Risas” (Tears and Laughters), November 30, 1889 – A denunciation of Spanish racial prejudice against the brown Filipinos.
10. “Ingratitudes” (Ingratitude), January 15, 1890 – A reply to Gov. Gen. Valeriano Weyler who, while visiting Calamba, told the people that they “should not allow to be deceived by the vain of their ungrateful sons”.
New Orthography of Tagalog Language
Rizal was the first to advocate the Filipinization of its orthography. For instance, the Tagalog letters k and w should be used instead of the Spanish c and o. salacot – salakot
arao – araw
Early in September, 1886 – while in Leipzig, Rizal adopted the Filipinized Tagalog orthography in his Tagalog translations of Schiller’s Wilhelm Tell and Andersen’s Fairy Tales and again he used it in his first novel Noli Me Tangere(Berlin, 1887 “Sobre la Nueva Ortografia de la Lengua Tagala” (The new Orthography of the Tagalog Language) – article of Rizal and was published in La Solidaridad.
Dr. Trnidad H. Pardo de Tavera – author of the celebrated work El Sancristo en la Lengua Tagala (Sankrist in the Tagalog Language) which was published in Paris, 1884.
Rizal Criticizes Madrid Filipinos for Gambling
Rizal received news from Juan Luna and Valentin Ventura that the Filipinos in Spain were destroying the good name of their nation by gambling too much. Accordingly Rizal wrote to M. H. Del Pilar on May 28, 1890 to remind the Filipinos in Madrid that they did not come to Europe to gamble, but to work for their fatherland’s freedom. The gambling people in Madrid were angry when they learned of Rizal’s moralizing. They derisively...