Rivers

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Rock Cycle, Minerals, and Major Rock Types

Three Major Rock Types & How They Form:
Igneous Rock
Formed by cooling and crystallization of molten magma
Sedimentary Rock
Rocks that form in surface environments through the accumulation of sediment carried by water, wind, or ice (weather). Metamorphic Rock
A pre-existing rock that is put under increased temperature and/or pressure so that new minerals and textures form. Rock Cycle
Metamorphic melts into magma… magma cools into igneous… igneous through weathering, transportation, and deposition become sediment… sediment through cementation and compaction become sedimentary rock… sedimentary rock through increased pressure and temperature become metamorphic rock. *

Definition of Mineral and Rock:
Mineral
A crystalline solid. Different chemical composition inorganic and the building blocks of rocks. Rock
A lump or mass of hard consolidated mineral matter. The bond of one more elements into crystals. *
Mineral Cleavage:
Is the plane of weakness of a rock. Cleavage is a plane of weakness.

Hardness:
1 = softest, 10 = hardest… diamond is the hardest, talc is the softest, teeth is 5.

Reactivity with Weak Acid and How to distinguish calcite from muscovite mica from quartz and pink feldspar: Calcite is dissolved easily by weak acids where as muscovite is fairly resistant to weathering (both chemical and physical). Muscovite - is transparent, two translucent sheets, hardness of 2.0 Calcite - is light, with perfect Rhombohedral cleavage… calcite fizzes and dissolves in weak acids. Hardness of 3.0 Quartz - has a hardness of 7, no cleavage because no planes of weakness, resistant to chemical and physical weathering, can be dissolved by strong bases, clear and translucent. Pink feldspar - is a hardness of 6.0, cleavage is good in two directions, forming right angle prisms, color is off white, yellow, or shades of red, orange to brown, luster is vitreous to dull if weathered, opaque, one of the most common minerals. Mica - is soft, flexible sheet-like crystal form

Important properties of granite and basalt and their importance:

Hydrologic Cycle
The continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of earth.

Movements of water
Groundwater, infiltration, surface runoff, precipitation, evaporation, transpiration(like evaportion), sublimation(solid to gas)

Atmosphere = .001%
Glaciers and Polar Ice (Cryosphere) = 2.97%
Lakes and Rivers = .009%
Underground water = 1.05%
Biosphere = .001%
Salt Water = 95.6%

Climate change and rivers

Weather vs. Climate
The difference between weather and climate is a measure of time. Weather is what conditions of the atmosphere are over a short period of time, and climate is how the atmosphere "behaves" over relatively long periods of time. 

Greenhouse Effect
Incoming solar radiation is a total of 342 watts/m2… 168 watts absorbed by the surface… 67 watts absorbed by the atmosphere… 77 watts reflects off the clouds and 30 watts reflect of mountains… in total 107 watts is reflected solar radiation…

Carbon Cycle and Anthropogenic changes to the carbon cycle
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, andatmosphere of the Earth. It is one of the most important cycles of the earth and allows for carbon to be recycled and reused throughout the biosphere and all of its organisms. Anthropogenic changes – human activities release 7.1 Gt of carbon into the atmosphere each year. That results in new plant growth and air-sea exchange removes 3.8 Gt/year… yielding a net atmospheric increase of 3.3 Gt/year.

Climate Models
Climate models are predictions of future climate and weather patterns due based off of computer models and patterns in current weather and climate habits…

Watersheds and Geology Basics

Watersheds
The area of land, a bounded hydrologic system, within which all living...
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