River Valley Civilizations

Topics: India, Indus Valley Civilization, Buddhism Pages: 6 (2258 words) Published: February 3, 2014
A long, long time ago, before Christ, there were many different RVC’s. RVC is abbreviated for River Valley Civilizations. Some main River Valley Civilizations that we studied were Egypt, Mesopotamia, and India. These River Valleys offered many achievements to the people. For example, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and India all settled on rivers this was an achievement because they were able to travel, trade, communicate, gather food, and practice religion. These rivers were very important to the River Valley Civilizations because they depended on them. Without the help of these rivers they wouldn't have been able to successfully survive.

The IVC started about 2500 BC, along the south-western part of the Indus River. IVC is Indus Valley Civilizations of ancient India. There were four civilizations counting the IVC. There was the Aryans, Maurya Empire, Gupta Empire and of course the Indus Valley Civilization. Each civilization had different impacts of geography, government, religion, job specializations, social classes and achievements. The IVC had large organized cities. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro are considered the twin capitals. They were settled on the Indus River which helped them trade, communicate, and travel. They were able to grow crops to provide food for themselves. The Indus Valley Civilization had a very well organized government. People in the IVC were Polytheistic and Animistic, they believed in mother goddess, sacred the buffalo and bulls. Social classes were merchants and farmers. This would help them trade with others. Polytheistic is worshiping or believing in one or more god. Animistic is believing animals in nature have spirits and are gods. The Indus Valley Civilization had many achievements. There were standardized cubic weights, plumbing, writing, chart of constellations, trade and communication. Today we have made these achievements more advanced and this has helped us. Between 1000-500 BC period Aryans had no major cities. The cities were very small. Aryans invaded Ganges Basin and Northwestern India. In their government, they had a tribal rule, the leaders were the Rajahs. The powerful Rajahs gained control. They practiced Polytheistic and they believed in the caste system. Ranked groups were the Brahmins and priests. At the top of the social classes were the warriors. Farmers and servants were considered in the middle and at the very bottom were the outcasts. Brahmans increased in number, wealth and power and eventually challenged the warriors. They specialized in farming which was trade. Achievements were the vedas and epic literature. Vedas were oral nyms passed down for 1000 years.

The Maurya empires capital was Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. They had a very strong government, a well organized bureaucracy, they were ruled by a king. These created roads, courts, tax and industries. A bureaucracy is a system of government in which most important decisions were made by state officials rather than be elected by representatives. The Maurya empire introduces a new religion, Buddhism, this spreads around the village. Buddhism is an outgrowth of Hinduism as a response to too much domination and control by Hindu priests. Siddhartha Gautama was Buddhism's founder, he who figured out the essence of the life and therefore become enlightened. Siddha is what Siddhartha became known as, this means the “enlightened one,” a guy who has it all figured out. Enlightened is showing or having a well outlook on life. Siddhartha has a very wonderful story. He was born into the higher class, married and never knew what suffering was. One day, he decided to ride outside of the palace where he grew up. He saw suffering, death, and poverty. Siddhartha was hurt with this that he left his family and became a searcher for the explanation of suffering. For years and years he wandered looking for answers from the holy men and scholars. He sat under a big tree meditating until he...
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