The aim of this report is to analyse the river flow data from the River Severn in 2000 and 2001. The data readings will be taken from the Bewdley station 54001 over the 10 months of each year.
The data will be analysed in graphical and statistical format in order to view trends and relationships easier.
The results will be displayed as data i.e. either table format of raw data, from this graphs will be constructed to illustrate the various types of data and the way it will be displayed
1. Introduction Page 4
2. Background Page 5 & 6
3. Methodology . Page 7
4. Results .Page 8,9,10 &11
5. Analysis Page 12
6. Conclusion .. .Page 13
7. References ..Page 14
8. Appendix 1 .Page 15
The objectives of this report are to analyse the raw data readings of the station and process them into a statistical format in order to make comparisons and draw conclusions.
Initially the report will look at the river flow data of the River Severn in 2001, but will then compare the readings against those of year 2000 in order to view any relationships and changes.
Summary of flow measurement & flood monitoring
The UK gauging station network is one of the most densely populated when compared on compared on a global level. This is due to many factors such as climate change, geographical variances, usage of land and water utilisation. The data individual gauging stations collect vary widely depending on application and the area. Factors such as:
River flow measurement in essential in order to provide estimated projections in water supply, as well as reservoir levels in order meet the demand for water to domestic, agricultural and commercial sectors. This problem becomes more evident when most of the UK population and commercial sectors are concentrated in the driest parts of England, around the south east, where rainfall and river flow can vary significantly.
River flow has varied significantly over recent years due to droughts where there has not been enough rainfall, leading to reservoirs running extremely low. Then river flow has increased so quickly causing the concern to switch from droughts into risk of flooding. (2)
The majority of the river flow data readings taken by the 1300 monitoring stations are taken by a flow measurement weir as the one in the picture on the right. Readings are taken as the river flows past a notch in the weir. In order for the weir to give accurate results, the crest of the weir is to be kept sharp and sediment should not be allowed to build up behind the weir.(3)
There are many gauging station posted across the 209mile long stretch of the River Severn, which also inclines up to an altitude of 610 metres. Making it the largest river within the UK.
(1) http://www.ceh.ac.uk/data/nrfa/uk_gauging_station_network.html (2) http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/inlwater/iwlevels.htm (3) http://www.british-hydro.org/mini-hydro/infopage.asp?infoid=368 Due to the UK being and island and surround by Atlantic Ocean, English Channel, Irish and North Sea on all four sides, the chances of flooding are considerably high. This makes the task of making flood risk assessments very difficult, due to the weather being able to change very quickly.
The environment agency uses technology to monitor the rainfall, river levels and sea condition 24 hours a day, in order to provide local forecasts for flooding. The system issues four levels of warnings, with the fourth level being an all clear.
The most common and well known flood defence are sandbags, which are regularly seen on the news along river banks when flood warnings are in effect. There are currently many products designed and available to consumer to protect against...