Risk Assessment and Pressure Area Care

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Unit 4222-229
Undertake agreed pressure area care (HSC 2024)
Outcome 1 Understand the anatomy and physiology of the skin in relation to pressure area care: 2) Identify pressure sites of the body:
* Shoulders or shoulder blades
* Elbows
* Back of your ears
* Knees, ankles, heals, toes
* Spine
* Base of spine/sacrum area
3) Identify factors which might put individual at risk of skin breakdown and pressure sores: Intrinsic risk factors:
* Mobility problems
* Poor nutrition
* Underlying health condition
* Over 70 years old
* Urinary/bowel incontinence
* Serious mental health condition
Extrinsic risk factors:
* Pressure from a hand surface, bed or wheel chair
* Pressure that is placed on the skin through involuntary movements-muscle spasms * Moisture-can break down the outer layer of the skin
4) Describe how incorrect handling and moving techniques can damage the skin: Adjusted mobility aids. Equipment/Techniques; Possible Hazard * Chairs; Clients inability to get out of the chair

* Seat surface may cause uneven distribution of pressure, Perspiration or friction (Patient weight & size may cause pressure on arms and hips if too large for chair size) * Wheelchairs; Maybe ill-fitting causing pressure

* Tissue damage caused contact with protrusions such as footplates * Beds; Confinement to bed: Client unable to change position: * Mechanism used for sitting patients up may increase pressure on the sacrum. This is an issue for manual beds compared to profiling beds. * Shower/Commode Chairs; Client seated over aperture for long periods * Inappropriate transfer of the patient from one to another may cause friction damage. * Transfer Boards; Bare skin on board surface: Composition of the board may cause grazing: Clothing may be pulled against the skin. Feet or head may be off the end of the sliding surface causing drag. * Sliding Sheets/Low Friction Rollers; Fabric may crumple against the skin: Feet and/or arms may drag as buttocks move * Turntables; Skin contact when placing in position: Feet may drag if turntable is used under buttocks * Hoist/Slings; Ill fitting sling may cause pressure against the skin. * Sling left in place causing pressure against the skin

* Incorrect sling for the task
* Insufficient lift causing client to be dragged against surface * Fabric of sling may be too rough
5) Identity a range of interventions that can reduce the risk of skin breakdown and pressure sores: * Turn the patient on a regular schedule (least 2 hourly) * Help the patient to be as active as possible (e.g., walk or get up from bed). * Protect the patient’s heels.

* Use pressure-redistribution surfaces.
* Manage moisture, nutrition, friction, and shear.

6) Describe changes to an individual’s skin condition that should be report: * The skin is dryer, weaker
* Blister or damage to skin
* Patches of hot skin
* Swelling
* Red patches of skin
* Bluish/purplish patches on dark skinned people
* Patches of hard or cool skin
* Breaks in the skin
Outcome 2 Understand good practice in relation to own role when undertaking pressure area care: 1) Identify legislation and national guidelines affection pressure area care: * Clinical guidelines for doctors, nurses and others working in the NHS * Guidelines issued by NICE-health care professionals are expected to follow: * Recommends that health care professionals work together-include the patients in all decisions. * Safe guarding legislation, GSCC code of practice and the Care Standards Act states that you have a duty to protect individuals from harm-which includes protection from getting pressure sores 2) Describe agreed ways of working relating to pressure area care: * Following car plans, because they are personalised

* Following work roles/policies and procedures
* Following Moving and...
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