Risk and Safety Management

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Student Name: Kerstin Landschof
Student Number: Q09864580
Course title: MSc International Maritime Studies – Shipping and Logistics Unit title: Management of Shipping Operations
Assignment title: Risk and Safety Management

Assignment tutor: Simon Holford
Word count: 4,000 words
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Southampton Solent University
School of Technology
Faculty of Maritime and Technology

Risk and Safety Management


(Figure 1: Costa Concordia, source: USA TODAY 2012)


Course title: MSc International Maritime Studies –
Management of Shipping Operations

Tutor’s name:Simon Holford

1. Introduction2

2. Literature survey and critical evaluation and analysis of safety culture4

2.1Critical evaluation of safety culture constituents4

2.2Analysis of recommendations for the development of a more robust safety culture8

2.2.1Safety culture review9

2.2.2Development of a safety management system9

2.2.3 Three level strategy for the development 10 of a more robust safety culture

2.2.4Psychological factors12

3. Critical evaluation of the implementation of the new safety culture onboard the vessels14

4. Bibliography21

List of Figures

Figure 1: Costa Concordia

Figure 2: Cooper`s Reciprocal Safety Culture Model5

Figure 3: Contribution of human errors to marine accidents7

Figure 4: The process of risk analysis and risk assessment11

Figure 5: Schedule for implementation14

Figure 6: Schedule for risk assessment and control19

Figure 7: Timescale for safety culture implementation20

1. Introduction

“Things will go wrong in any given situation, if you give them a chance” (Murphy’s law).

On November 13, 2002, the heavy fuel oil tanker Prestige sprang a leak in its hull on the Galician coast. When the first difficulties were realised, the vessel’s master refused the support of a tugboat due to cost factors. Later on, four tugboats attempted to rescue the leaking oil tanker. The Spanish government refused to give permission for the vessel to take refuge in one of their ports, deciding instead to place it out at sea. Finally, on November 19, 2002, the tanker broke into two parts and sank (Guardian 2002).

The Prestige disaster raises the question of whether it could have been avoided and if all precautions had been taken. Other serious accidents at sea, such as the grounding of the container ship Rena on a reef in New Zealand in 2011 or the capsizing of the Costa Concordia in 2012, all similarly identified the human factor as one of the most significant causes (Porter 2012; Anon 2012).

Whether accidents cause oil pollution, loss of life or any other damage, the main issue that arises in these situations is the question of maritime safety and in connection with this, a well-implemented and robust safety culture. Safety cultures can easily fail due to a variety of reasons. One could be the style of management, as this can vary to a large extent (Roughton and Mercurio 2002).

Safety is of the utmost importance in the maritime industry, as incidents and accidents can have a devastating effect on humans, vessel, cargo and...
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