Rise of Hitler

Only available on StudyMode
  • Topic: Adolf Hitler, Weimar Republic, Nazi Party
  • Pages : 7 (1567 words )
  • Download(s) : 110
  • Published : February 10, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
Rise of Hitler

* Weimar Republic (1918-1933)

-Government elected by people
-Women could vote for the first time
-Proportional representation: coalition parties
-Elections for presidency every 7 years

Article 48: in crisis situation, all civil rights suspended

Grand Coalition: 10 years: SPD, Catholic Centre, DVP

Stab-in-the-back-theory: Germans were expecting to win WW1 in the Spring Offensive. When the armistice with the allies was signed the German had not yet retreated back into Germany. The government however was forced to surrender. The myth that followed these events was that Germany did not in fact lose/capitulate. This myth was popular among right-wing parties and their supporters. Since the Weimar Republic was forced to sign the treaty of Versailles this was a bad start for the new German government. There was heavy right-wing as well as left-wing reaction against the sanctions of the treaty of V.: * 1919: Spartacist Rising (left-wing)

To overthrow Weimar Republic, lead by Rosa Luxemburg & Karl Liebknecht, could seize government buildings, was crushed by newly built Freikorps, leaders shot without trial

* March 1920: Kapp-Putsch (right-wing)
For a more authoritarian government, took over government with aid of the Freikorps, army did not intervene, however trade unions and workers supported the SPD by calling a general strike. Kapp was forced to give in and flee and his putsch failed. The putsch showed how insufficient the army’s loyalty to the government was at the time

* Matthias Erzberger: part of the group that signed the armistice, assassinated by right-wing group * Wolfgang Knapp: Jewish foreign minister, assassinated

* 1920: Von-Kahr Putsch (right-wing)
overthrew state government in Bavaria, Von Kahr became state commissioner (=governor) Bavaria became new focus of opposition to the Weimar government

-all political groups had their own private armies: problems with violence in the streets: 1918-1922: 376 people killed in street fights in Germany

Economic Crisis:

Germany fell behind with reparation payments, therefore France and Belgium who most relied on these payments had to take action: 11. Jan 1923: Occupation the Ruhr-Gebiet: (industrial area on German border containing 80% of Germany’s metal industry with no fortified defence) German workers refused to continue working: Government called on passive resistance France brought in French workers to Ruhr Gebiet

German workers then used sabotage, guerrilla warfare and strikes Impact on different areas of production in Germany. almost brought German economy to a halt

Inflation: end of 1923: money had almost no value
problems for workers as their wages became worthless
the savings of the middle class in the banks became worthless people blame government for the situation

1923: Gustav Stresemann becomes German chancellor for a short period: introduced cooperation with allies and stopped the passive resistance

1924: Dawes Plan
introduced to restore German economy
no fixed amounts for Germany’s reparations – payments were put on a sliding scale USA provided loans (800 mio. gold marks at start)
allies took partial control of the central banks
German economic recovery was achieved

1925(?): Locarno Conference
mutual agreement on Franco-German and Belgian-German borders demilitarization of the Rhineland recognized as permanent

1925 Presidential elections: Hindenburg voted (right-wing) for 7 years, re-elected until death

1926: Germany joins the League of Nations

1929 Wall Street Crash:
-American loans to Germany withdrawn
-Young plan is introduced: reparation payments on a sliding scale over 59 years, improvement on Dawe’s Plan -high unemployment (23%)

March 1930: Bruning becomes chancellor: rules by article 48 for 2 years

* Rise to Power

1919: Hitler joined German Workers Party committed to nationalism, anti-capitalism,...
tracking img