Rise and Fall of Julius Caesar

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What were the reasons for the rise and fall of Julius Caesar?

Changes within the structure of the Roman army set the early stage of the rise of Julius Caesar to power within the Roman Empire. The republican army of the early days was founded on the “Servian” constitution. The army was the army of the state; citizens served in it according to their wealth and were called to arms when needed. In the third century this began to change as campaigns increased in duration and moved farther and farther from the boundaries of Rome itself. Further there was a growing resistance of wealthy citizens to take part in military service. In 107 BC Marius instituted reforms lowering the requirements of military service to include members of the lower classes. This voluntary service helped to augment the compulsory service required of more wealthy citizens. Volunteers flocked to the army due in part to the troubled economic situation within the republic that had plagued the lower class for many years. Army service provided payment for service, a share of booty, and an allocation of land upon completion of service. These reforms led to the creation of a professional army with soldiers who served many years, often in the same unit, led by the same commander. This in turn created a great deal of loyalty between the Legions and their respective commanders, loyalty that superseded that between the republic and her citizens. Political infighting was also instrumental in the rise of Caesar. Marius had been embroiled in an ongoing political struggle with forces allied with Sulla. While Marius was engaged in a military campaign in Asia against the king of Pontus in 88 BC, Sulla who had been stripped of his authority in Asia by senatorial decree marched on Rome with his legions. Sulla forced the senate to banish Marius, who had managed to escape to Campania. Marius was captured at Minturnae but managed to escape again finally reaching Africa, where his old soldiers had been allocated...
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