Stress is induced by life events .Lazarus and Flokman in (Cavanaugh and Blanchard –Field (2005) point out stress is defined by the person and that no two people experiences stress the same event in exactly the same way. Each individual has a specific tolerance for stress depending on general level of adjustment, the internal and external resources available to that person, flexibility of learned coping mechanisms and the degree and type of stress being experienced .The rise in stress that results from emotional hazardous situations motivates the individual to bring into play coping mechanisms or problem solving behaviours.
2. The role of stress
Development is shaped by four forces biological, psychological, socioeconomic/cultural, and life cycle forces .The interaction of these forces influence life expectancy and can induce stress.
Include all genetic and health related factors.
The primary goal of across adulthood is to have high quality of life .There is a wide range of physical changes taking place during old age (adulthood stage) such as body, mobility, bones, skin etc. Older adults are vulnerable to chronic diseases such as arthritics. Being able to get around on once own is an important part of remaining independent. Illness can severely limit movement thereby reduced independence. These changes can increase the stress levels .In contrast .having a health body enables an older adult to continue with physical activities and daily routines.
Include internal perception, cognitive, emotional and personality factors
Age related changes have profound psychological effects on older adults. The psychological abilities are crucial to adapt to changing environment .These abilities consist of memory, intelligence, feelings, personal control, appearance etc. Aging comes with progressive loss of these abilities .The degree to which older adults perceive that he/she is in control of his life reduces the stress level i.e. Able to care for himself, make his own decisions, feels competent. On the other hand, if he is made to feel incapable of making decision, treated like a child rather than an adult contribute to stress. The loss of memory and muscles coordination have the same psychological effects as changes in appearance .These changes can be stressful to older adults
Include interpersonal, societal, cultural and ethnic factors. Cultural and ethnicity provide status, social setting, living conditions and personal experiences across all ages .Culture shapes peoples core belief s. Ethnicity defines ones sense of identity .According to Cavanaugh and Blanchard (2005) very little is know about how culture and ethnicity affect how people experience aging .
•Life Cycle Forces
One of the four basic forces of development that reflects differences in how the similar event affects people at different points in their lives such death of the loved one .This event affects people across ages.
2.2 Effects of Stress On Health
The research indicates that people differ in their physiological responses to stress. If the duration of stress is short it will have little effect on health .Prolonged stress has great effect on the person’s nervous system, immune system suppression can lead to increased vulnerability to viral infections, increased risk to hypertension and impaired memory .It is crucial in particular for older adults to activate learned coping mechanism within a relatively short period to prevent health risks.
2.3 Stress and Coping Paradigm
According to Cavanaugh and Blanchard (2005) stress and coping paradigm point out that stress is not an environmental...