1.0 INTRODUCTION Paddy or rice grain consists of husk and brown rice. Brown rice, in turn, contains bran which comprises the outer layer and the edible portion. Rice milling is removal or separation of husk (dehusking) and bran to obtain the edible portion for consumption. The process has to be accomplished with care to prevent excessive breakage of the kernel and improve recovery of paddy or rice. The extent of recovery during milling depends on many factors like variety of paddy, degree of milling required, the quality of equipments used, the operators, etc. Rice mill is a common activity and can be started in many parts of the country and this note considers Manipur as the prospective location. 2.0 PRODUCTS 2.1 Applications What comes out during milling operation are husk, milled rice or edible portion, bran and the broken rice. Depending upon the type of rice mill, the by-products come out in mixed or separated form. Milling is usually done when paddy is dry (around 14% moisture content). Wet soft grains are powered and very dry brittle grains would break. 2.2 Availability of technical know-how and Compliances.
CFTRI, Mysore, has successfully developed the technical know-how. Compliance under the PFA Act is compulsory. 3.0 MARKET POTENTIAL Rice is considered to be staple food diet in most parts of India including the North-East states. Paddy is the most important agricultural commodity in Manipur and the total area under cultivation is estimated to be around 2.25 lac hectares with annual production of close
to 5 lac tons. Apart from every household, there are many bulk buyers like hospitals, caterers, restaurants, hostels, etc. With proper efforts, it is possible to enter into a long term contract with big traders or contractors. 4.0 MANUFACTURING PROCESS The process is very well standardised. First of all, paddy is cleaned to remove unwanted matters like mud, stones, chaff etc. This cleaned lot is then fed to de-husker where with the help of rubber roller, husk is separated. The brown rice is then taken to huller where polishing is done by mild friction created within the polishing chamber. The resulting polished rice and bran are separated and collected. Recovery of edible rice is around 80%. Byproducts constitute about 15% whereas balance 5% is waste and process loss. The process flow chart is as under: Cleaning of Paddy K De-husking K Polishing K Packing 5.0 CAPITAL INPUTS 5.1 Land and Building It is suggested to buy an open plot of around 200 sq.mtrs. which would cost around Rs. 0.60 lac on which the built-up area would be 80 sq.mtrs. costing around Rs. 2.10 lacs. 5.2 Plant and Machinery
The minimum viable capacity has to be processing of 600 tonnes per year on two shift working and around 250 working days. To install this production capacity, following equipments need to be installed: Item De-husking Machine with rubber rollers of 10 inches Polishing Machine Huller Others Qty. (Nos) 1 1 1 -Total (Rs. in lacs) Rate 0.90 0.80 0.35 0.25 2.30
A provision of Rs.50,000/- would be required towards furniture and fixtures, storage facilities, electrification, etc. 5.4 Utilities
Total power requirement will be 30 HP whereas water requirements are not much. Annual expenditure under this head at 100% activity level could be Rs.60,000/-. 5.5 Raw Material
Paddy is the only raw material required. The input-output ratio is 100.80 and to that extent, the quantum of paddy would go up. Thus even at 100% utilisation, the requirement will not be more than 750 tonnes per year. Looking to the total production of paddy in Manipur, supplies should not be a problem. But it is advisable to have long term supply arrangements in place. 6.0 MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS Particulars Skilled Worker Semi-skilled Workers Helpers Nos. 2 2 4 Monthly Salary (Rs.) 1,800 1,500 1,200 Total Total Monthly Salary (Rs.) 3,600 3,000 4,800 11,400
TENTATIVE IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE...