Rice, Corn and Other Cereals

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Tabaco City
S.Y.: 2010-2011

OF
RICE, CORN AND OTHER CEREALS

GROUP 3:Submitted to:
1. Jessica BelangelMs. Mary Gale Cruza
2. Mary Cris Bino
3. April Coluso
4. Joseph Copino
5. Michelle Bonto
6. Annie Salomon
7. Ricky Ceriola

CHAPTER IX
RICE, CORN AND OTHER CEREALS
9.1 NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CEREALS
Cereals and cereal products are valuable primarily because of their nutritive composition. They are good sources of carbohydrates, proteins, thiamine, other B-complex vitamins and certain minerals, like phosphorus and iron. Rice has the highest starch content while oats have the lowest. The average value for all cereals is 75%.

In general, about 24% of the total protein in the average diet can be derived from cereals. Table 9.1 shows the amino acid content of cereals in milligrams per one hundred grams of food. Table 9.1 Amino acid content of cereals (FAO Nutritional Study No. 24, 1970) Rice Corn BarleyOatsSorghumRye

Amino acid, mg/
100 g food

Isoleucine296350421526397414
Leucine581119078410121348728
Lysine255332406517204401
Methionin150182196234141172
Cystine108147267372152225
Phenylalanine342464603698496522
Tyrosine226363365459271227
Threonine254342389462306395
Tryptophan953818017612387
Valine408461592711507561
Arginine534398555876311541
Histidine165258248292217261
Alanine401716464633946503
Aspartic acid6735966661075638845
Glutamic acid135018002771291921412856
Glycine307351453656301512
Proline33185012827238111108
Serine329473476656416510

9.2 RICE
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the staple food of approximately half of the world’s population (FAO, 1966; Umali, 1972; Crabbe and Lawson, 1981). Among the Asian countries like Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, the major staple food is rice (Considine and Considine, 1982). In Southeast Asia, 60 – 80% of the food calories of the cereal – eating population are derived from rice and the average per capita consumption is about ½ kilogram a day or approximately 150 kilograms a year (Bradfield, 1972). In the Philippines, about 80% of the Filipinos use rice as their staple. Table 9.2 shows the proximate composition of rice in comparison with corn and sorghum. Among the three, milled rice has the highest edible content (100%); food energy source (367 calories); and total carbohydrate (80.4 gm). In terms of protein content, rice comes only second to sorghum. The latter had the highest phosphorus content (172 mg) while yellow corn has the least (107 mg). White corn gave the highest moisture content of 63.1% and sorghum is the least with only 8.1%. Other vitamin and mineral content in the three cereals can also be compared. Table 9.2 Proximate composition of rice, corn and sorghum.

RiceCorn
(white, milled)WhiteYellowSorghum

Edible portion, %100.0030.0039.0100.0
Moisture, %11.163.257.98.1
Food energy, cal367.0143.0167.0352.0
Protein, gm7.44.44.49.5
Fat, gm0.50.81.53.9
CHO total, gm80.430.935.477.1
Fiber, gm0.42.21.12.2
Ash, gm0.60.70.81.4
Calcium, mg27.013.08.042.0
Phosphorus, mg155.0116.0107.0172.0
Iron, mg1.00.70.85.0
B –carotene equiv. mcgnot analyzedn.a.210.015.0
Thiamine, mg0.100.220.220.28
Riboflavin, mg0.050.100.130.10
Niacin, mg2.81.81.64.2
Ascorbic acid, mgnot analyzed6.011.0n.a.

9.2.1 Agricultural Production
In terms of world production, rice is the second important food crop after wheat (Crabbe and Lawson. 1981). In 1988, rice production in the world reached 483,466,000 metric tons (MT) and of these, 441,480,000...
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