India's First War of Independence, termed Sepoy Riots by the British was an attempt to unite India against the invading British and to restore power to the Mogul emperor Bahadur Shah. The resistance disintegrated primarily due to lack of leadership and unity on the part of Indians, as also to cruel suppression by the British Army. It was a remarkable event in Indian history and marked the end of the Mughal empire and sealed India's fate as a British colony for the next 100 years.Causes for the RevoltThere were many causes that ultimately lead to this revolt. For the sake of convenience they can divided into the following categories.1.Social And Religious Causes2.Political Causes3.Military Causes
| 1. Social and Religious Causes
A. Change in pattern of trade and commerce
During the first two hundred years of its rule , the British East India Company confined its activities to trade and commerce. But in the 18th century the pattern of trade underwent a drastic change. With the onset of the the industrial revolution in England, many new industries came up and the dependance on Indian textiles came to an end. India became a raw material producing country and raw material which was purchased from India at very low costs was processed into finished goods in the factories in England and then exported back to India. British traders made enormous profits in this two way trade. B. Ruination of Artisans and Craftsmen
C. Disgruntled Zamindars and Taluqdars
The estates of many landlords were taken over by the East India Company when the native provinces came under the company's dominion. The estates of 21,000 Taluqdars were confiscated when Oudh was annexed. The dispossesed landlords found themselves without a source on income, ashamed to beg,unable to work and thus condemned to penury. D. Disbanded soldiers were seething with anger and were determined to revenge. E. Activities Of Missionaries
The Indians had a lurking suspicion in their minds that they would be...
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