Tourism Policy: Structure, Content and Process
DEMONSTRATE THE CRITICAL IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM POLICY TO THE COMPETITIVENESS AND SUSTAINABILITY OF A TOURISM DESTINATION.
Outline the structure and content of a typical policy framework for a tourism destination.
Describe a process for the formulation of a destination tourism policy.
Key Concept Definitions
COMPETITIVE DESTINATIONS: DESTINATIONS THAT POSSESS THE ABILITY TO ATTRACT AND RETAIN VISITORS, AND TO DO SO IN A MANNER THAT INCREASES THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL WELL-BEING OF THE RESIDENTS OF A DESTINATION; WHILE ENSURING THAT THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND CULTURAL INTEGRITY OF THE DESTINATION IS MAINTAINED AND/OR ENHANCED.
CONTENT OF TOURISM POLICY: The major components of destination tourism policy. These include, a philosophy of tourism development, a vision for the future ideal state of the destination, a set of tourism objectives and associated constraints, supporting supply and demand development strategies, and a destination management organization (DMO) development strategy.
CORE VISION: The component of the total vision statement that attempts to capture the overall essence of the “ideal future” for the destination in question.
DESTINATION POSITIONING: The way in which consumers in the travel market perceive a destination relative to its competitors. These perceptions involve comparisons and contrasts along a number of concrete dimensions (or destination attributes), as well as overall (or holistic) judgments regarding the similarities and differences among competing destinations.
DESTINATION VISION: A statement (or set of statements) that describe a shared consensus of all stakeholders regarding a desired future state of the region as a tourism destination. A total vision commonly consists of a “Core Vision” and a number of supporting elements (or vision sub-themes).
IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY: The total set of initiatives pertaining to facility, event, and program development that are designed to realize a destination’s tourism vision. The strategy also includes the identification of those organizations responsible for pursuing each initiative, the timing of their actions, and the sources of funding to support implementation.
MULTIDISCIPLINARY TOURISM POLICY: Tourism is, by its very nature, a multidisciplinary phenomenon. The tourism experience is impacted by a range of economic, psychological, societal, technological, legal, and political forces. It follows that in order to formulate policies that accommodate or address these multiple forces, those involved must appreciate the complexities of each discipline, and their interactions in any given situation. The disciplines of psychology, economics, sociology, and law are but some of the disciplines that can enhance our understanding of international marketing. The environmental sciences, political science, and the behavioral sciences are essential to the formulation of National Park policy that defines the levels and types of tourism that are appropriate and desirable in that setting.
POLICY FORMULATION: The process by which the structure and content of policy may be developed. This process is conceptualized as containing four main phases. These phases are identified as the definitional phase, the analytical phase, the operational phase, and the implementation phase.
STRUCTURE OF TOURISM POLICY: A framework describing the manner in which all the components of a tourism policy relate to one another. One example of such a framework is given in Figure 15.5.
SUSTAINABLE DESTINATIONS: Those destinations that possess the ability to provide destination stakeholders with a fair return on their investments and their efforts, while ensuring that the ecological, social, cultural, and commemorative integrity of the destination is maintained in a state unimpaired for future generations.
TOTAL SYSTEM POLICY: Tourism policy that applies...