Gross Anatomy of the Human Heart
1. An anterior view of the heart is shown here. Match each structure listed on the left with the correct letter in the figure. g j r u b k d n a 1. right atrium 2. right ventricle 3. left atrium c a b
4. left ventricle 5. superior vena cava 6. inferior vena cava 7. ascending aorta 8. aortic arch 9. brachiocephalic artery 10. left common carotid artery 11. left subclavian artery 12. pulmonary trunk 13. right pulmonary artery 14. left pulmonary artery 15. ligamentum arteriosum 16. right pulmonary veins 17. left pulmonary veins 18. right coronary artery 19. anterior cardiac vein t s w x v 20. left coronary artery 21. circumflex artery 22. anterior interventricular artery 23. apex of heart 24. great cardiac vein d e f g h s t p q r
i u j v w k
p o f q h i
2. What is the function of the fluid that fills the pericardial sac?
reduces friction on the beating heart
3. Match the terms in the key to the descriptions provided below. f a h e a g b d g c 1. location of the heart in the thorax 2. superior heart chambers 3. inferior heart chambers 4. visceral pericardium 5. “anterooms” of the heart 6. equals cardiac muscle 7. provide nutrient blood to the heart muscle 8. lining of the heart chambers 9. actual “pumps” of the heart 10. drains blood into the right atrium
Key: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. atria coronary arteries coronary sinus endocardium epicardium mediastinum myocardium ventricles
4. What is the function of the valves found in the heart?
prevents backflow, maintains one way direction through heart
5. What is the role of the chordae tendineae?
anchors cuspids to ventricle walls
Pulmonary, Systemic, and Cardiac Circulations
6. A simple schematic of a so-called general circulation is shown below. What part of the circulation is missing from this diagram? pulmonary circulation Add to the diagram as best you can to make it depict a complete
systemic/pulmonary circulation. Label the systemic and pulmonary circulations.
pulmonary ve lungs pulmonary pulmonary circulation
Systemic arteries Systemic capillaries Systemic veins
Review Sheet 30
7. Differentiate clearly between the roles of the pulmonary and systemic circulations.
Pulmonary carriers blood between
the heart and lungs. Systemic carriers it from the heart to the body and back.
8. Complete the following scheme of circulation of a red blood cell in the human body. Right atrium through the tricuspid valve to the semulnar beds of the lungs, to the the mitral bicuspid aorta body right ventricle , through the pulmonary arteries pulmonary , to the capillary of the heart, through , through the aortic semilunar of the , and
valve to the pulmonary trunk, to the pulmonary veins valve to the L vetricle , to the
valve to the
, to the systemic arteries, to the superior ,
tissues, to the systemic veins, to the venae cavae
entering the right atrium of the heart. systemic
9. If the mitral valve does not close properly, which circulation is affected?
10. Why might a thrombus (blood clot) in the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery cause sudden death? because it would block oxygenated blood from being pumped out to the body
Microscopic Anatomy of Cardiac Muscle
11. How would you distinguish the structure of cardiac muscle from that of skeletal muscle? cardiac muscle is uni/binucleate has intercalated discs, and is has branching fibers, skeletal is multinucleate and is long and cylindrically shaped
12. Add the following terms to the photograph of cardiac muscle below. a. intercalated disc b. nucleus of cardiac fiber c. striations d. cardiac muscle fiber
Describe the unique anatomical features of cardiac muscle. What role does the unique structure of cardiac muscle play in its function?...