Review of Wind Energy Technologies

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ARTICLE IN PRESS

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11 (2007) 1117–1145 www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

A review of wind energy technologies
G.M. Joselin Herberta, S. Iniyanb,Ã, E. Sreevalsanc, S. Rajapandiand a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai-119, India b Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai-25, India c Center for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET), Chennai 601-302, India d Electrical Department, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai-119, India Received 17 August 2005; accepted 25 August 2005

Abstract Energy is an essential ingredient of socio-economic development and economic growth. Renewable energy sources like wind energy is indigenous and can help in reducing the dependency on fossil fuels. Wind is the indirect form of solar energy and is always being replenished by the sun. Wind is caused by differential heating of the earth’s surface by the sun. It has been estimated that roughly 10 million MW of energy are continuously available in the earth’s wind. Wind energy provides a variable and environmental friendly option and national energy security at a time when decreasing global reserves of fossil fuels threatens the long-term sustainability of global economy. This paper reviews the wind resources assessment models, site selection models and aerodynamic models including wake effect. The different existing performance and reliability evaluation models, various problems related to wind turbine components (blade, gearbox, generator and transformer) and grid for wind energy system have been discussed. This paper also reviews different techniques and loads for design, control systems and economics of wind energy conversion system. r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Wind power technology; Reliability evaluation model; Aerodynamic model; Wind resource assessment

Contents 1. 2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1118 World wind energy scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1119 ÃCorresponding author. Tel.: +91 44 235 1723.

E-mail address: iniyan777@hotmail.com (S. Iniyan). 1364-0321/$ - see front matter r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2005.08.004

ARTICLE IN PRESS
1118 G.M. Joselin Herbert et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11 (2007) 1117–1145

2.1. Wind turbine sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2. Wind power in selected countries . . . . 2.3. Future wind power development . . . . 3. Wind resource assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Site selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Wind turbine aerodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1. Wake effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. Performance and reliability of wind turbines 6.1. Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. Problems associated with wind turbines . . . . 8. Wind turbine technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1. Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2. Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3. Blade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4. Gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5. Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6. Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. Grid connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. Control system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. Economics of wind turbine system . . . . . . . 12. Application of wind turbine converters . . . . 13. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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