Review of Related Literature
Stress has been defined in different ways by different people. The business person may define stress as frustration or emotional tension; the air traffic controller may define it as a problem of alertness and concentration, while the biochemist may define stress as a purely chemical event (Ivancevich and Mattenson, 1990). Psychologists and biologists think of stress as any strain that interrupt the functioning of an organism (The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007). Medical professionals think of stress as a factor that causes tension and disease (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 2003).
From a layperson’s perspective, stress can be defined as feeling tense, pressure, and worry (Ivancevich, Konopaske and Mattenson, 2008). However, Selye (1956), a pioneering expert on the study of stress, defined stress as “the rate of wear and tear within the body at any one time because this is the immediate nonspecific result of function and damage” (p. 55). Bunge (1989), on the other hand, defined stress as “a person’s psychological and physiological response to the perception of a demand or challenge” (p. 93). According to Decenzo and Robbins (1999, p. 438), “stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint or demand, related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important”. Ivancevich, Konopaske and Mattenson (2008), defined stress as“an adaptive response, moderated by individual differences that is a consequence of any action, situation or event that places special demands on a person” (p. 224).
According to the Dictionary of Psychology by Ray Corsini (2002), performance is an “activity or behaviour that leads to a result such as a change in the environment”. In relation to job, Jamal (1984) defined performance as “an activity in which an individual is able to accomplish...
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