Stress has been defined in different ways by different people. The business person may define stress as frustration or emotional tension; the air traffic controller may define it as a problem of alertness and concentration, while the biochemist may define stress as a purely chemical event (Ivancevich and Mattenson, 1990). Psychologists and biologists think of stress as any strain that interrupt the functioning of an organism (The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007). Medical professionals think of stress as a factor that causes tension and disease (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 2003).
From a layperson’s perspective, stress can be defined as feeling tense, pressure, and worry (Ivancevich, Konopaske and Mattenson, 2008). However, Selye (1956), a pioneering expert on the study of stress, defined stress as “the rate of wear and tear within the body at any one time because this is the immediate nonspecific result of function and damage” (p. 55). Bunge (1989), on the other hand, defined stress as “a person’s psychological and physiological response to the perception of a demand or challenge” (p. 93). According to Decenzo and Robbins (1999, p. 438), “stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint or demand, related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important”. Ivancevich, Konopaske and Mattenson (2008), defined stress as“an adaptive response, moderated by individual differences that is a consequence of any action, situation or event that places special demands on a person” (p. 224).
According to the Dictionary of Psychology by Ray Corsini (2002), performance is an “activity or behaviour that leads to a result such as a change in the environment”. In relation to job, Jamal (1984) defined performance as “an activity in which an individual is able to accomplish successfully the task/goal assigned to him, subject to normal constraint of the reasonable utilisation of available resources”
Studying stress is important to make the organizations aware that they have a moral and legal obligation to provide a work environment in which stress is kept to manageable levels (Jex, 1998). Being aware on the extent of stress in the library workplace, library administrators could design a necessary preventive technique for their staff to deal with stress. This can help the library staff to cope positively with different stressors in their workplace which may result in better performance and high level of well being. On the other hand, policy makers could formulate a guideline which is not too complex so that employees can follow them effectively without being stress.
Read more: http://www.ukessays.com/essays/psychology/review-of-related-literature-psychology-essay.php#ixzz2MmhA1Dgf http://www.ukessays.com/essays/psychology/review-of-related-literature-psychology-essay.php Literature Review for Nursing Stress Interventions
By Christine Ross
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/1534683
http://ezinearticles.com/?Literature-Review-For-Nursing-Stress-Interventions&id=1534683 Stress is a well-known and identified problem within the nursing profession. According to Atkinson stress occurs when one is faced with events or encounters that they perceive as an endangerment to their physical or psychological well being (as sited in McGowan, 2001). Additionally stress levels will increase when controllability and predictability in a situation decrease. There is an inverse relationship between stress and job satisfaction, as stress goes up, job satisfaction falls. As a result this increased stress could commonly results in decreased job satisfaction and decreased quality of life. This could potentially contribute to nurses leaving the profession and as an end consequence, account for the current nursing...