Review of Related Literature and Studies

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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Several studies have been conducted here and abroad which have a direct and indirect bearing on the subject to be investigated in this study. A brief review of the related literature and studies are presented hereunder.

Literature
In the present educational system, studies based on the achievement levels of elementary and secondary students revealed that the equality of education has deteriorated over the years. In a recent UNESCO statistics Barsaga (2000) noted that Filipinos are among the most schooled in the developing countries, yet in comparative international tests measuring academic achievement, the Philippines ranks among the lowest in the developing countries. He furthers noticed that in the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievements (IEA) science study show that Filipino children scored appallingly low at two (2) standard deviations below the mean. In spite of governments’ support of basic education, past national achievement tests show low levels of content mastery. Efforts have been taken up to improve the quality of education through improvement of curriculum programs, upgrading of academic standards for better instructional materials and physical facilities and through meaningful staff development.

Different strategies are designed to expand access to quality education in general and improve the quality of secondary education in particular. However, despite the efforts of the education authorities to improve the quality of education through the improvement of curriculum programs, the level of performance of the students continues to deteriorate especially the mathematics education. Many researchers revealed the effects of parent – child’s relationships in the child’s early formative years. Such researches suggest that the influence of parental involvement during the delicate stage of a child’s life greatly contribute to the achievement, motivation and other factors associated with educational success.

Bustos and Espiritu (1996) observed that a child from a poor and disadvantaged family does not aspire for higher education. The child reflects the family’s attitude that since the child cannot afford higher education, it is enough to be able to read, write and count.

Wrigley (1992) observed that mathematics and science courses segregate boys from girls. She noted that girls take fewer mathematics and science courses than boys. She further stated that gender differences in mathematics experiences star at early age.

However, Baker and Jones (1992) revealed that gender differences in mathematics performance were fading in. They further noted that this trend was rooted in several social processes that were related to decreasing gender stratification in societies in general.

According to Van Scotten (1991), every society is organized by a gender and role. In other words, every culture has processes by which people are socialized in to sex roles. Of these, sex is almost universally the most basic social category. Women and men have generally been treated more equally in education than in other areas of society. In general, individual’s educational attainment and achievement are more influenced by class than by gender. Men and women are usually have equal scores on intelligence and standardized achievement tests. Indeed, women have higher grades than men at all levels from grade school to college. For many years, women have been more likely than men to finish high school. Yet, when families must make decisions concerning who receive post – high school education, men are favored. Women attain less education that would be expected given their qualification and may face discrimination in secondary and higher education.

Low socio – economic level of the students have been observed by many as the reason for the poor academic achievement of many students.

Vatter (1992) observed that the at–risk students in mathematics classes...
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