Review of Related Literature

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Review of Related Literature

The review of related literatures of this study is made here in the Philippines and in abroad. It is acquired from the internet and unpublished theses. It is nearly related on the relationship of computer game addiction to interpersonal relationship to adolescents especially, K-12 students. To enrich the background on the subject of the researcher, the literatures that were found are here in presented. A. Foreign Studies

Based from the study of Mark Griffiths (2007),“Does Internet and Computer "Addiction" Exist? It has been alleged that social pathologies are beginning to surface in cyberspace (i.e., technological addictions). To date, there is very little empirical evidence that computing activities (i.e., internet use, hacking, and programming) are addictive. Anecdotal evidence indicates that the typical "addict" is a teenager, usually male, with little or no social life, and little or no self-confidence. This article concentrates on five case studies of excessive computer usage. It is argued that of the five cases, only two of them describe "addicted" subjects. Addiction components criteria were used in the assessment. The excessive usage in the majority of cases was purely symptomatic and was highlighted how the subjects used the Internet/computer to counteract other deficiencies.

The 2009 OSDUHS Mental Health and Well-Being Report by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in Toronto, Ontario, showed almost 10% of 9,000 surveyed students from Grades 7 to 12 get at least 7 hours a day of "screen time". A little over 10% also reported having computer gaming problems in the previous year. A recent article Pediatrics (journal, 2009) found a mild association between watching television and playing a computer game and attention issues in more than 1,300 children ages eight to 11 years old. Children who played computer games or watched television for more than the normal two hours a day maximum, which is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics were 1.5 - 2 times more likely to show signs of attention issues, the researchers found.

Lepper, M. R. & Gurtner, J (2010), states that playing computer games excessively can cause, mainly upon children, a number of physical and psychological problems which may include obsessive, addictive behavior, dehumanization of the player, desensitizing of feelings, personality changes, hyperactivity learning disorders, premature maturing of children, psychomotor disorders, health problems (due to lack of exercise & tendonitis), development of anti-social behavior and loss of free thinking and will. According to Anderson and Bushman (2010), after using 54 independent tests of the relation between computer game violence and aggression in 4262 participants, there are five consistent results of playing computer games with violent contents appeared. Playing violent games increase aggressive behaviors, increases aggressive cognitions, increases aggressive emotions, increases physiological arousal, and decreases pro-social behaviors. Since most electronic games are violent, children below legal ages are emotionally disturbed and caused several changes on their behavior.

According to Douglas Gentile and five researchers from Singapore and Hong Kong (2011), computer game addiction can cause a serious behavioral problem. The pathological gamers are more likely to become depressed, have increased social phobias and increased anxiety. Pathological gamers started with an average of 31 hours of play per week, compared with 19 hours per week for those who never became pathological gamers.

According to Dr. Brent Conrad (2012), in his book ’’How to Help Children Addicted to Video Games – A Guide for Parents “, computer game addiction can cause emotional problems. Computer game addicts is at greater risk for depression, loneliness, social anxiety, anger, and feelings of shame or embarrassment for spending so much time playing games. It...
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