Literature reviews are acknowledged as valuable contributions to advancement of research. When done well, they help researchers sum up where have been and where they need to go next. They identify gaps in knowledge and suggest new directions for future research. That such endeavors are considered useful is reflected in the number published each year. Reviews of research literature are carried out for several reasons. One reason is to assess state of current knowledge. Relatedly, literature reviews assess what is not known-the gaps in knowledge. It is quite common in published literature reviews to find a discussion of what directions ought to be taken by future research on a topic. Such discussions define productive lines of research and promote integration of future findings with current knowledge. A third reason is to advance theory. Good literature reviews make strong statements about validity of theories and stimulate new theoretical development. A fourth reason is to answer the ‘so what’ question so often put to behavioural science research. That is, literature reviews provide statements about policy implications of research findings, practices that can be justified on the basis of research.
Post - industrial era is characterized by increasing knowledge, by tension arising from individuals’ need for stability and organizations’ need for change, through complex relationships between organizations individual’s responsibilities increasing global competitiveness. This new environment, of accelerating change, globalization and reliance on individual knowledge as its primary resource for economic success brought about abundant theories, models and studies dealing with various aspects of improving (organizational) effectiveness. Two main streams of thought differentiate; performance-oriented school of thought driven by quest to improve quantitative outputs of organization and humanitarian school of... [continues]
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