Review for Anthoropology

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Know the approximate time boundary between prehistory and history and what development it is based on. Archaeologists define prehistory as that portion of human history that extends back some 2.5 million years before the time of written documents and archives. History is the study of human experience through the time of written documents, has a much shorter time span. Written records go back to the 5,000 years ago in western Asia. 1. What percentage of human existence has been in prehistoric times? 2. Name the forms of prestate societies. (P.28 Box)

Prestate societies are small-scale societies, based on the community, band, or village. They vary greatly in their degrees of political integration and sometimes divided into three loosely defined categories: 1. Bands are associations of families that may nor exceed twenty-five to sixty people. 2. Tribes are clusters of bands that are linked by clans (formal kin groups). 3. Chiefdoms are a controversial category, for they display great differences in organization and social complexity, making them hard to define precisely. 3. What is superposition and stratigraphy in an archaeological site? (P17, F1-6)

4. Know the difference between pseudo archaeology and actual archaeology. When such unrealistic subjects (for example, Raiders of the Lost Ark, The Mummy, and King Solomon's Mines) are treated more seriously, accusations of pseudoscience are invariably levelled at their proponents. Pseudoarchaeology is an umbrella term for all activities that claim to be archaeological but in fact violate commonly accepted archaeological practices. It includes much fictional archaeological work, as well as some actual activity. (from wikipedia) 5. The main kind of data that archaeologists rely upon is called (2 words). Radiocarbon dating 6. Know the 4 main kinds of dating techniques, what time periods they are associated with, and what kinds of things each can date. 1. Historical records (present day to 3,000 B.C.)

historical records can be used to date the past only as far back as the beginnings of writing and written records, which first appeared in western Asia in about 3,000 B.C., much later in many other parts of the world. 2. Dendrochronology (Three-ring dating) (Present day to 8,000 B.C.) The annual growth rings of long-lived trees such as sequoias etc… can be used to date sites in some areas such as the American Southwest, the Mediterranean, and Western Europe. Originally used on southwestern pueblos, dendrochronology, using sequences of growth rings, is also used to calibrate radiocarbon dates. 3. Radiocarbon dating (C. A.D. 1,500 to 40,000 years ago) Radiocarbon dating is cased on the measurement of the decay rates of 14C atoms in organic samples like charcoal, shell, wood, hair, and other material. When combined with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), it can produce dates from tiny samples, which are them calibrated, if possible, against tree-ring dates to probide a date in calendar years. Radiocarbon chronologies date most of prehistory after about 40,000 years ago, well after modern humans appeared in Africa for the first time. 4. Potassium argon dating (250,000 years ago to the origins of life) A chronological method used to date early prehistory, which measures the decay rate of 40K atoms in volcanic rocks. Potassium argon dating is an excellent way of dating East African honin fossils, many of which are found in volcanic levels. 7. What is the main significance of being bipedal for early hominines? Use their hands freely (using tools, take care of their child, to get foods etc…). Protect their body from over heating. Run faster to escape and survive from animals. 8. Know the order in which toolmaking, brain size, and biqedality emerged. 9. Know the names of different tool kits & which hominine each is associated with. From a pound of flint…

1. The peccle tool had 3 inches of cutting edge. Homo habilis (2...
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