Reveiw of Related Literature

Topics: Metro Manila, Emergency management, Valenzuela City Pages: 10 (2977 words) Published: May 24, 2013
Review of Related Literature

Topic Description: The performance of natural disaster and risk reduction management of Malabon City in the past 5 years.


The review of the literature for this study gives emphasis in the creation, strengthening, and evolution of the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction Management System (PDRRMS) that provided an integrated approach in dealing, not only with the country’s preparedness and responsiveness towards natural disasters, but also with how it can lessen and even diminish risks and danger involve with these. Also, the review will provide an overview of the City of Malabon and its local ordinance in regard to the creation of the Disaster Management Office.

Natural Disasters

A natural disaster is a phenomenon that happens when human activities and natural occurrence, such as volcanic eruptions, typhoons, flash floods, hurricanes, tsunamis, earthquakes, etc. enmesh creating natural but hazardous events. These events bring about catastrophic consequences that are vital in the lives and development not only of all those living in the affected area but also in the neighboring vicinities. According to Blaike (1994), natural disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability.

For decades, scientists and experts have engaged in the study, exploration and explanation of the natural world to define and understand of these complex mechanisms of these occurrences to reduce the alarming level of devastation and destruction they provide.

(Sources: Retrieved on January 29, 2013. Retrieved January 29, 2013.)

Human-Induced Disasters

Human-Induced Disasters are also known as Man-Made Disasters. It is influenced by human activities which commonly results in the people's negligence and our capacity to commit error. It can also be caused by an institution's failure of systems.

(Source: Retrieved on January 29, 2013)

Disaster Risk Reduction

According to United Nations Office for Risk Reduction, there is no such thing as a “natural” disaster, only natural hazards. A certain natural hazard, earthquakes, landslides, typhoons per se, will constitute as a disaster if the latter will have a huge and severe negative impact on the society and the environment. These impacts, in relation to the environment, are primarily consequences on how we live our lives, how the government help and guide us in living our lives, and how the society molds our way of thinking on how to live our lives. It is in our very own judgments that we can either be more susceptible to disasters, or be more resilient.

The perception that Disaster Risk Reduction provides is the systematic approach to analyze, reduce, and even diminish the risks and casualties that disasters create. Some cited examples of Disaster Risk Reduction are as follows: the reduction of the exposure and vulnerability of people’s lives to natural hazards, the protection of the environment and the sustainable usage of the natural resources, and the ability of the government to be prepared for these naturally-occurring hazards.

(Source: Retrieved on January 29, 2013)

The Philippine Setting

Due to the Philippine’s geographic location, in the Pacific Ring of Fire, managing the natural hazard occurrences is at the utmost difficulty. We have experienced a numerous number of natural hazards which varies from droughts to floods, from earthquakes to typhoons, and from volcanic eruptions to landslides that made the country physically and financially challenged. These kinds of hazards paved their way in hindering the ability of the country to be disaster-resilient and safer for the citizens.

Tropical cyclones which include succeeding rains and windstorms are a common scenario in the Philippines. Based on the 2009...
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