Rethinking Our World

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 834
  • Published : April 23, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
Rethinking our world

Linguistic analysis:
* Claims that almost all philosophical problems can be dispensed with once their underlying linguistic basis is exposed * No matter how hard we try to solve a problem we fail, then we are dealing with a false problem/ meaningless set of words * 2 British philosophers = Bertrand Russell & AJ Ayer * Focused on logic, linguistic meaning & verifiable facts

Help us do:
* Think more clearly
* Be precise in what we mean
* Spot hidden assumptions & dishonesty in all forms of propaganda

Can’t help us with:
* Moral problems
* Life choices
* Facing own mortality
* Seeing the people we love suffer
* Our own suffering

Logical symbolism & argument:
* Arrive at the basic structure of truth
* Process is facilitated by representing objects & relationships symbolically * Any statement that is true/false by definition can be expressed in form of symbolic logic

Empiricism:
* Gained through traditional 5 senses(seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, tasting) gives us our most reliable form of information * Concerned with establishing the truth by means of scientific testing * Searching for objective truth

* Linguistic analysis, logical symbolism & empiricism = logical empiricism

Can help us:
* Understand how our physical world operates
* Test truth of certain claims
* Refute what is false
* Respect natural laws of the Universe
* Learn from experience

Failings:
* Places too much emphasis on science
* Ignores human values
* Views human beings as machines
* Tend to ignore anything that can’t be explained scientifically * Confines truths to that which can be experiences through senses

Critical Rationalism:
* Encourage questioning & open-mindedness
* Socrates, 470-399 BC
* Challenge existing ideas & beliefs by questioning them * Essential for the future of true democracy
* Emphasis that scientists must be objective
* Completely against societies where people can’t speak their minds freely & discuss things openly * Focuses on avoiding falsity

Help us to do:
* Question what people in authority tell us
* Be more open to what other people think
* Examine our own opinions more carefully
* Be more tolerant & understanding
* Solve problems

Can’t help us to do:
* Make quik decisions
* Find meaning of life
* Can make us feel insecure
* Solve problem of suffering

Types of false argument:
* Name-calling
* False cause & effect
* Falsely representing an opinion in order to discredit it * Appeal to emotion
* Falsely claiming that, because a point of view is popular, it must be true

Existentialism:
* What is meaning of life?
* Modern believe that “our duty” is to decide for ourselves what life is about

Can help us to do:
* Question other people’s ideas & values
* Be more open about ourselves
* Trust our instincts
* Spot fakes
* Enjoy life more

Failings:
* Too trusting
* Can be confusing
* May lead to despair
* May leave us feeling helpless & angry
* May be seriously disruptive

Nihilism:
* Philosophy of nothing
* No purpose in life = waste of time
* Can lead to violence & chaos, but also free people who have grown up in very repressive religious environments

African philosophy:
* Holistic philosophy which shares certain ideas with Buddhism philosophy: it stresses the importance of human community & community’s place in the Universe * Claims that happiness at least partially consists of living for others, supporting each other * It’s an anti-materialistic philosophy

Can do:
* Build communities
* Encourage human beings to be more humble
* Give deeper understanding of ourselves
* Help us appreciate mystery
* Re-examine need for...
tracking img