Retail math is often used in various ways by store owners, managers, retail buyers and other retailing employees. It is used to evaluate inventory purchasing plans, analyze sales figures, add on markup and apply markdown pricing to plan stocks.

Although there are computer programs and other tools available, performing these retail math calculations often requires familiarity with formulas. Use the following equations and retail math formulas to track merchandise, measure sales performance and help create pricing strategies.

Acid-Test Ratio

Acid-Test Ratio = Current Assets - Inventory ÷ Current Liabilities

Average Inventory

Average Inventory (Month) = (Beginning of Month Inventory + End of Month Inventory) ÷ 2

Basic Retailing Formula

Cost of Goods + Markup = Retail Price
Retail Price - Cost of Goods = Markup
Retail Price - Markup = Cost of Goods

...Average formula:
Let a1,a2,a3,......,an be a set of numbers, average = (a1 + a2 + a3,+......+ an)/n
Fractions formulas:
Converting a mixed number to an improper fraction:
Converting an improper fraction to a mixed number:
Formula for a proportion:
In a proportion, the product of the extremes (ad) equal the product of the means(bc),
Thus, ad = bc
Percent:
Percent to fraction: x% = x/100
Percentage formula: Rate/100 = Percentage/base
Rate: The percent.
Base: The amount you are taking the percent of.
Percentage: The answer obtained by multiplying the base by the rate
Consumer mathformulas:
Discount = list price × discount rate
Sale price = list price − discount
Discount rate = discount ÷ list price
Sales tax = price of item × tax rate
Interest = principal × rate of interest × time
Tips = cost of meals × tip rate
Commission = cost of service × commission rate
Geometry formulas:
Perimeter:
Perimeter of a square: s + s + s + s
s:length of one side
Perimeter of a rectangle: l + w + l + w
l: length
w: width
Perimeter of a triangle: a + b + c
a, b, and c: lengths of the 3 sides
Area:
Area of a square: s × s
s: length of one side
Area of a rectangle: l × w
l: length
w: width
Area of a triangle: (b × h)/2
b: length of base
h: length of...

...Formulas (to diﬀerential equations) Math. A3, Midterm Test I.
sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 sin(x ± y) = sin x cos y ± cos x sin y tan(x ± y) =
tan x±tan y 1∓tan x·tan y
diﬀerentiation rules: (cu) = cu
′ ′ ′ ′ ′
(c is constant)
cos(x ± y) = cos x cos y ∓ sin x sin y
(u + v) = u + v
(uv)′ = u′ v + uv ′
′ ′ u ′ = u v−uv v v2 df dg d dx f (g(x)) = dg dx
sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x tan 2x = sin x =
2
cos 2x = cos2 x − sin2 x
2 tan x 1−tan2 x 1−cos 2x , 2
integration rules: cos x =
2 1+cos 2x 2
cf dx = c
f dx f dx +
1 a F (ax
(c is constant) g dx + b) + c,
sin x + sin y = 2 sin x+y cos x−y 2 2 sin x − sin y = 2 cos x+y sin x−y 2 2 cos x + cos y = 2 cos x+y cos x−y 2 2 x−y x+y cos x − cos y = −2 sin 2 sin 2 1 sin x cos y = 2 [sin(x + y) + sin(x − y)] 1 cos x cos y = 2 [cos(x + y) + cos(x − y)] 1 sin x sin y = − 2 [cos(x + y) − cos(x − y)] x −x x −x cosh x = e +e sinh x = e −e , 2 2 2 2 cosh x − sinh x = 1 sinh 2x = 2 sinh x cosh x cosh 2x = cosh2 x + sinh2 x cosh2 x =
cosh 2x+1 , 2
(f + g) dx =
f (ax + b) dx =
where F is antiderivative of f f (g(x))g ′ (x) dx = F (g(x)) + c, where F is antiderivative of f f f dx =
f′ f ′ α ′ f α+1 α+1
uv dx = uv − R(e ) √ R( ax + b)
x
dx = ln |f | + c
+ c, if α = −1 u′ v dx ex = t √ ax + b = t
√ √ax+b cx+d
notable substitutions:
sinh2 x =
cosh 2x−1 2
R
√ √ax+b cx+d
=t
derivatives: (sinh x) = cosh x (cosh x) = sinh x (loga x)
x ′ ′ ′ 1 = x ln a...

...generates sound, light, and heat energy. It is also referred to as the retarding force or even drag force in the form of air resistance.
Frictional force is found to be directly proportional to the normal force (N) which is mathematically expressed as:
f ∝N
f=kN (Equation 1)
The coefficient of friction (µ) takes the place of k which is the constant of proportionality. Thus:
f=µN (Equation 2)
26904953626485Figure 3. Angle of Repose
Figure 3. Angle of Repose
269061011472000If the body slides down the incline due to its own weight, the angle between the horizontal and the incline is called angle of repose 𝜽, as shown in Figure 3. In the previous experiment, if we are measuring along the y-axis, the formula will be
ΣFy=0, f=Wcosθand if we are measuring along the x-axis, the formula will be
ΣFx=0, f=Wsinθ.
The coefficient of friction is equal to the tangent of the angle of repose.
µ=fN=WsinθWcosθ, µ=tanθ(Equation 3)
In this experiment, we should be able to determine the coefficient of friction (µ) between contact surfaces as one body moves with uniform motion and establish the relationship between the angle of repose (𝜽) and µ. The rules of this experiment are to keep clean the surfaces of the wooden block and plane by wiping them with a piece of scratch paper or tissue to remove dust and other particles and to make sure not to touch the surfaces that you will use in this experiment to avoid contamination. The materials for this...

...
The case between Beauty and Stylish involves concept of a valid contract, pre-contractual statements, express term and misrepresentation.
A valid contract is established between Beauty and Stylish when an offer is accepted and there is intention for both parties to create legal relations. An offer refers to the expression of willingness of the offerer to be contractually bound by an agreement if his or her offer is properly accepted. It has to be clear and certain in terms. It must also be communicated to the offeree before it is being accepted. In addition, the acceptance has to be unqualified, unconditional and made by a positive act. In the case of Beauty and Stylish, a positive act refers to the signing of the contract. All terms of the offer must be accepted without any changes and cannot be subjected to any condition, taking effect only upon fulfillment of that condition. When Beauty and Stylish enter into the agreement, they must intend to bind and bound legally to each other by their agreement. This is the intention to create legal relations between two parties. In the meanwhile, this contract must possess consideration. A contract must therefore be a two-sided affair, with each side providing or promising to provide something of value in exchange for what the other is to provide.
Every contract, whether oral or written, contain terms. The terms of a contract set out the rights and duties of the parties. Terms are the promises and undertakings given by each...

...The Euler’s Formula
Euler’s formula and Identity: eix = cos(x) + i(sin(x))
The world of math today is one with endless possibilities. It expands into many different and interesting topics, often being incorporated into our everyday lives. Today, I will talk about one of these topics; the most mind-blowing and fascinating formula invented, called the “Euler’s formula”. This formula was created and introduced by mathematician Leonhard Euler. In essence, the formula establishes the deep relationship between trigonometric functions and the complex exponential function.
Euler’s formula: eix=cos(x)+isin(x); x being any real number
Wow -- we're relating an imaginary exponent to sine and cosine! What is even more interesting is that the formula has a special case: when π is substituted for x in the above equation, the result is an amazing identity called the Euler’s identity:
eix=cos(x)+isin(x)
eiπ=cos(π)+isin(π)
eiπ= -1+i(0)
eiπ= -1
Euler’s identity: eiπ= -1
This formula is known to be a “perfect mathematical beauty”. The physicist Richard Feynman called it "one of the most remarkable, almost astounding, formulas in all of mathematics." This is because these three basic arithmetic operations occur exactly once each: addition, multiplication, and exponentiation. The identity also links five fundamental...

...Retailing VTU notes
PART-B- RETAIL MANAGEMENT
MODULE 5 - RETAIL MANAGEMENT
Retail Management: Definition:
“Retailing consists of activities involved in selling goods and services to ultim
ier. Retailers will be interested to assess the working of the supplier on paramerter such as innovation,speed of new product or variant introduction, sampling service, marketing support(advertising and promotion) and handling queries and complaints.
CATEGORY MANAGEMENT:
Category management is the process of managing a retail business with the objective of maximizsing the sales and profits of a category rather than the performance of individual brands or models.
A category is an assortment of items that the customer sees as reasonable substitutes for each other. For example, retailers in ready to wear segment consider female and male clothing as one category.
It systemizes grouping of products into strategic units or category so as to better meet consumer needs and achieve sales and profit goals.Today, the relevance of category management is driven by the emergence of multiple number of brands in each product category. For the success of any category management, retail business requires changes in the merchandising system and organizational commitement.
Advantages of Category Mangement:
1. Increased sales
2. Reduced Inventory management
3. Improved route and warehouse efficiency.
The Essential...

...
Retail Management
Tommy Dunn
22036495
Project: 08001400
August 28th, 2014
Retail Management
Introduction
The main objective of this paper is to find out the strategic analysis, analyze store layout, design and visual merchandising as well as Internet retailing for our chosen retailer. I have chosen Ross stores as the company for which the research and analysis would be undertaken.
Strategic Analysis
Ross stores were first launched in 1982 with sic junior departmental stores and today the company has around 1000 stores. In 2011 the 1000th store was launched at San Francisco. In the fiscal year 2012 it was reported that the company had reached a historic sales $ 9.7 billion. Through its overall strategic planning and a planned action the company has expanded really quickly in just 20 years and become one of the favorite stores for the public (‘Retailing Strategy’). It is the third largest off-price retailer in the United States, behind T.J. Maxx and Marshalls, both of which are owned by TJX Companies.
Products
Ross Stores, Inc. (RSI) is an off-price retailer, and sells apparels and home accessories. The company’s product portfolio includes apparel, accessories, footwear, lingerie, fine jewelry, fragrances, bed and bath products, home accessories, small furniture and furniture accents, educational toys and games,...