Assignment Due: Week 7
Student instructions: Follow the step-by-step instructions for this exercise found in your text and record your answers in the spaces below. Submit this completed document by the assignment due date found in the Syllabus.
Please make sure that your answers are typed in RED.
Activity 2: Measuring Normal Respiratory Volumes
1. Minute respiratory volume: 7,500 ml
2. Judging from the trace you generated, inspiration took place over how many seconds? 2 seconds 3. Expiration took place over how many seconds? 2 seconds 4. Does the duration of inspiration or expiration vary during ERV or FVC? Yes
Activity 3: Effect of Restricted Air Flow on Respiratory Volumes
1. How does this set of data compare to the data you recorded for Activity 2? The MRV is 3075 and the breathing is not as strong. 2. Is the respiratory system functioning better or worse than it did in the previous activity? It is worse. Explain why. The breathing is more shallow and incomplete. The lungs are not able to inhale or exhale as much as in Activity 2 3. What is the effect of reducing the radius of the air flow tube on respiratory volumes? The air flow was decreasing, which decreased the respiratory volume. 4. What does the air flow tube simulate in the human body? The trachea 5. What could be some possible causes of reduction in air flow to the lungs? An allergic reaction could cause the trachea to swell which would restrict air flow or an obstruction could block some or the entire trachea causing the air flow to decrease as well.
Factors Affecting Respiration
Activity 4: Effect of Surfactant on Respiratory Volumes
1. When surfactant is added, what happens to the tidal volume? It increases the amount of air being inhaled 2. As a result of the tidal volume change, what happens to the flow into each lung and total air flow? The air flow increases into the lungs and the total air flow increases 3. Why does this happen? Surfactant allows the wet surface of the alveoli to expand and not stick together.
Activity 5: Effect of Thoracic Cavity Puncture
1. What happened to the left lung when you clicked on the valve button? It collapsed and lost the ability to fill with air 2. Why? Because it is no longer has one way in and one way out. The opened valve does not allow air to enter and stay in the lung to become oxygenated. 3. What has happened to the “Total Flow” rate? It decreased 4. What is the pressure in the left lung? 0
5. Has the pressure in the right lung been affected? No
6. If there was nothing separating the left lung from the right lung, what would have happened when you opened the valve for the left lung? It would also collapse Why? There would be nothing separating them so they would act as one lung. If the valve opened, it would have the same affect on both as what happened to the left lung when the valve was opened. 7. Now click the valve for the left lung again, closing it. What happens? It stays collapsed. Why? The lungs valve was only closed, but the lung itself was not repaired. 8. Describe the relationship required between intrathoracic pressure and atmospheric pressure in order to draw air into the lungs. The intrathoracic pressure has to be the opposite of the atmospheric pressure in order to cause the air to be pulled into the lungs. 9. Design your own experiment for testing the effect of opening the valve of the right lung. Was there any difference from the effect of opening the valve of the left lung? No
Variations in Breathing
Activity 6: Rapid Breathing
1. What happens to the PCO2 level during rapid breathing? It decreased 2. Why? The breathing became quick and very shallow so the amount of oxygen being inhaled was less.
Activity 7: Rebreathing
1. What happens to the PCO2 level during...