Upper Respiratory VS Lower Respiratory
-Are separated by the larynx
-Upper Respiratory is the conducting pathway;
Histology: Pseudo Stratified Ciliated Columnar Epilithlial Tissue. -Lower Respiratory Tract is everything below the larynx, exchange pathway. Meaning perfusion.
Histology: Simple, because you want more passive mechanisms of perfusion.
-Terminal Bronchiole Alveoli
The rate limiting step and the final common pathway that you have perfusion exchange. The Alveoli, is the final common pathway for exchange of O2 and CO2.
Respiratory System Anatomy
Nose: Prepares the air, warms the air, humidifies the air, to prepare for an interface between the body and the external world, The nose often has hairs whose function is to stop unwanted particles from entering the lungs. Pharynx: Distinct regions—nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. Common denominator for respiratory and digestive system. Larynx
Different Alveoli Cells:
Type I alveolar cells
-simple squamous cells where gas exchange occurs
- Important for exchange.
Type II alveolar cells (septal cells)
* Free surface has microvilli
* Secrete alveolar fluid containing SURFACTANT
* Lowers surface tension, increasing perfusion.
Pulmonary embolism is blockage in one or more arteries in your lungs. In most cases, pulmonary embolism is caused by blood clots that travel to your lungs from another part of your body — most commonly, your legs. Pulmonary embolism is a complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which is clotting in the veins farthest from the surface of the body. Fat or air bubble in the vascular system can cause a Thromboembolic event.
**Chronic Pulmonary Resistance conditions exist in the Right Ventricle because the right ventricle thickens. **
A blood gas test measures the acidity (pH) and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood from an artery. When we take blood gases on our patients we are looking for partial pressure of O2 and CO2.
*WHEN WE DISCUSS PULMONARY PERFUSION THE CONCENTRATION GRADIENT IF FROM HIGH TO* *LOW.* Digestion
The digestive tract, also known as the alimentary canal and consists of what is known as an upper gastrointestinal tract and a lower GI. The upper is composed of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and the stomach The lower is made up of the bowels, the small and large intestines and the anus.
The upper gastrointestinal tract is the site of food processing. Most mechanical digestion occurs in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The upper GI tract consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and stomach. -Mouth comprises the oral mucosa, buccal mucosa, tongue, teeth, and openings of the salivary glands. The mouth is the point of entry of the food into the GI tract and the site where digestion begins as food is broken down and moistened in preparation for further transit through the GI tract. -Pharynx which leads to a hollow muscular tube called the esophagus or gullet. -Esophagus to the stomach by the mechanism of peristalsis—coordinated periodic contractions of muscles in the wall of the esophagus.
The stomach, in turn, leads to the small intestine…………
The lower gastrointestinal tract, consisting of the small intestine and large intestine, is the main location where nutrient processing and absorption occurs.
The lower GI tract comprises the intestines and anus.
The small intestine is where most digestion takes place.
-Accessory organs, such as the liver and pancreas help the small intestine digest, and more importantly, absorb important nutrients needed by the body. -Digestion is for the most part completed in the small intestine, and whatever remains of the bolus have not been digested are passed onto the large intestine for final absorption and excretion.
Histology of the Small Intestine