Resource and Environmental Dynamics: Role of Gis in Monitoring, Analysis, Management and Policy Development, Case Study from Sub-Saharan Africa (Nigeria)

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  • Topic: Geographic information system, Millennium Development Goals, Development
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RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL DYNAMICS: ROLE OF GIS IN MONITORING, ANALYSIS, MANAGEMENT AND POLICY DEVELOPMENT, CASE STUDY FROM SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA (NIGERIA)

OLAGUNJU, EMMANUEL GBENGA
GEOINFORMATICS PROGRAM,
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER AND INFORMATION SCIENCE, LINKOPING UNIVERSITY, LINKOPING, SWEDEN

PAPER FOR THE DEMO PRESENTED AT THE GEO-INFORMATICS 2006 CONFERENCE HELD AT THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY NATIONAL CENTRE, REXTON, VIRGINIA, USA

11 – 12TH MAY 2006

Abstract
This paper is a typical innovative description of the work done on the role of GIS in the management of resources and environmental dynamics. The context of study was Nigeria which is a microcosm of the sub- Sahara Africa. It is noteworthy to state that this region of the world is richly endowed with both natural resources (water and land based) and environmental variables that are of global interest.

However, it is a disadvantaged region because of poor analytical, monitoring and management technology of these resources and the environment. Poverty, environmental pollution (water, oil and gas pollution etc) and biodiversity degradation (change in climatic conditions, global warming etc), poor livelihood security and disasters characterised this third world region. The impact of these indices of underdevelopment in his region jeopardises the realisation of neo-liberalization, sustainable development, globalisation, Millennium Development goals and global security.

This paper focused on discussing the role of GIS in the effective analysis of the natural resources (water, land etc) deposition/distribution in Nigeria, which is inequitably distributed. It also examined the interface between GIS and resource and environmental monitoring and developmental planning for policy formulation and decision making.

The role of GIS as a collation and analysis tool in monitoring key environmental variables that is essential for resource and environmental management was a subject of discussion as well as the development of the GIS technology in the country.

The specific relevant applications of GIS in water/natural resources and environmental management were stipulated. The current GIS capacity of region was also enumerated as a way of interpreting the current trend in this region and the challenges ahead for the full integration of the GIS technology into resource, environmental analysis and management and developmental planning in the country.

Conclusively: The recommended use of GIS technology in research, training and production of empirical data for policy formulation locally, regional and globally

Key words: GIS, resources, environmental variable, biodiversity degradation, developmental planning, remote sensing, and hydrology.

Introduction
Nigeria as a microcosm of the sub- Sahara Africa is a region richly endowed with both natural resources (water and land based) and environmental variables that are of global interest. The contextual scenario of underdevelopment, poverty and poor technological capacity makes it a disadvantaged region. The complex environmental dynamics in the setting of poor analytical, monitoring capacity, and management of resources makes biodiversity degradation and environmental pollution the order of the day. In effect, constituting a global security threat; and serious challenge to the attainment/ implementation of the Millennium development Goals. Agricultural practice and other water based occupation which are the main source of livelihood in this region are jeopardised. The advent of GIS in the monitoring of environmental variables and management of the pollution is an issue for serious consideration in this region.

Agricultural and Environmental Resource
Agriculture has been the mainstay of the economy in Nigeria, providing employment and source of livelihood...
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