Resistance to Change Can Be Successfully Overcome by Systematically Following John Kotter’s 8 Step Model of Change Management!

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Resistance to change can be successfully overcome by systematically following John Kotter’s 8 step model of change management!

Abstract
The focus of this paper is to discuss how “Resistance to change can be successfully overcome by systematically following John Kotter’s 8 step model of change management!” by utilizing relevant literature and discussing the model with referring to real case studies. The aim is to evaluate if the model can always succeed to overcome resistance to change. The last is made through a comparison between John Kotter’s 8 step model of change management and another approach to overcome resistance; which is by following the three phases Strebel’s personal compact theory suggests. To evaluate these models a discussion based on two case studies of two organizations is included. These organization have been through change processes in the 1980s and 1990s and are; Philips electronics and Eisai natural pharmaceutical company.

1.Introduction
Success of change in organizations depends on various factors, but one that can threats it is the power of resistance to change. Organizations are not operating in isolation of its external environment which is constantly changing and therefore can’t afford not to change accordingly too. There are different drivers to change and resistance in organizations. Change is driven by change agents how have a certain power that is used to direct the operation toward goals (Fleming & Spicer 2007). Organizational change can be: emergent or planned. The differences between them are the tempo of change and the degree of risk of the innovation (Ibid). Resistance can also take different shapes: active resistance, which takes forms such as being critical, blaming or accusing and blocking; and passive resistance, which includes agreeing verbally but not following through or simply failing to implement change (Ibid). Based on this distinction many models and approaches to minimize resistance to change have been evolved (Buchanan & Badham 2008). People resist change of various reasons. According to Kotter (1979) resistance to change can results from: first; self-interest, as people might fear losing something valuable when change is done, second; misunderstanding of the sense of change and its implications on the organization and third; inherent limited tolerance for change. Since reasons to resistance are not easy to be identified, it is important for management to assume that resistance will appear and always try to prevent resistance to begin with. Kotter (1995) suggests that there is a certain way with clear steps that if followed resistance to change will overcomes. Change in organization doesn’t only include the business aspect but also a cultural dimension which in ignoring it blocks to change is certain and that will result to failure (Strebel 1996, pp.86-92).

2.Theory: Literature review
There are as many perspectives on how to manage resistance to change. In this section two of the most well-known change models are described in order to get the best understanding on how to achieve change. John Kotter’s eight step model

Kotter (1995) has identified eight steps that need to be followed for a successful change management, mainly focused on improving communication during the change process: 1)Create sense of urgency – analyze the competitive environment by foreseeing future threats and opportunities, and activate the organizational forces for the urgency of change 2)Form a powerful coalition – establish the power managerial team for leading change 3)Create a vision for change – build a clear vision for an effective perception of the change among the employees 4)Communicate the vision – have a good communication tools to share the vision 5)Getting rid of obstacles – take care of the resistance factors by empower employees that can execute the proposed vision 6)Create short-terms wins – plan short-term successes and reword it to increase...
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