Resistance Force Effort

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MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

CIRCUITS
SERIES CIRCUITS

Ratio of resistance and effort forces
Work = Force * Distance

IMA=

effort distance
resistance distance

AMA = resistance force
effort force

If MA > 1: Less effort force; greater effort
distance
If MA < 1: Greater effort force; less effort
distance
Moment = Force * Distance

Static Equilibrium: Effort Moment = Resistance Moment
Torque: A force that produces or tends to produce rotation or torsion.

SIMPLE MACHINES

Series circuits are connected end- Parallel circuits have both ends of to-end with a single path for current the components connected together, to flow.
with multiple paths for the current to
flow.
Current through every series
component is equal.
Voltage across every parallel
component is equal.
Total resistance is sum of
component resistances.
Total resistance is equal to the
reciprocal of the sum of the
Sum of all voltage drops is equal
component resistances' reciprocals.
to total applied voltage (KVL).

MULTIMETER USAGE
1

PARALLEL CIRCUITS

When measuring amperage, use
series connection. -->
CLASS 3
MA is always < 1

THERMODYNAMICS
The study of the effects of work, heat flow, and energy on a system. Thermal energy: Kinetic energy in transit from one object to another due to temperature differences.
Temperature: the average kinetic energy of particles in an object.

WHEEL AND AXLE

PULLEY

Effort and resistance distances are the Fixed pulley: IMA 1
diameters of the wheel and axle.
Movable pulley: IMA 2

INCLINED PLANE

WEDGE

Effort distance = slope

Effort distance: Wedge length

Resistance = vertical

Effort resistance: Wedge width

SCREW

Absolute Zero: 0 K = -273OC
Thermal equilibrium: when touching objects within a system reach the same temperature. Work can't be done.
LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Zeroth Law: Commutative property
First Law: Thermal energy can change form and location, but it cannot be created or destroyed. Can be increased within a system by adding thermal energy or performing work.

Second Law: Entropy is the measure of how evenly distributed heat is in a system. The total amount of energy in the universe does not change, but the Resistance distance = Pitch = the distance between threads. Traveled by availability of that energy constantly decreases. one rotation of the screw.

THERMAL TRANSFER
Effort arm distance is screw head, or length of wrench if using one.

GEARS, BELTS, AND SPROCKETS

Convection: Energy moving through movement of warmed matter.

Gears travel in opposite directions

Conduction: Energy moving from particle to particle.

Belt systems and sprockets travel in the same direction

Radiation: Energy traveling through a vacuum. EM waves.

output teeth output diameter input angular velocity
=
=
input teeth
input diameter output angular velocity
output torque
input torque
WORK, ENERGY, AND POWER

R-Value = material’s ability to resist heat. U-Value = ability to conduct heat

STATICS
NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION
1) An object in a state of rest or uniform motion will continue to be so unless acted upon by another force.

1 joule (work) = 1 Newton (force) * 1 meter (parallel distance)

2) Force = Mass x Acceleration

1 watt (power) = 1 joule (work) / 1 second (time)

3) For every action force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force

Forms of energy: Potential, kinetic, chemical, radiant, electrical. Conductors: 1-3 valance electrons
Semiconductors: 4 valance electrons
Insulators: 5-8 valence electrons

CURRENT, VOLTAGE, AND RESISTANCE

VECTORS
Scalar = magnitude only. Vector = magnitude and direction

STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
Moment of inertia: Mathematical property of crosssection (in4). Stiffness of an object related to shape. Higher MoI = greater resistance

Current (amperes): flow of electric charge. Current is only there when circuit is completed.

Modulus of Elasticity (E): Stiffness of object...
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