Ratio of resistance and effort forces
Work = Force * Distance
AMA = resistance force
If MA > 1: Less effort force; greater effort
If MA < 1: Greater effort force; less effort
Moment = Force * Distance
Static Equilibrium: Effort Moment = Resistance Moment
Torque: A force that produces or tends to produce rotation or torsion.
Series circuits are connected end- Parallel circuits have both ends of to-end with a single path for current the components connected together, to flow.
with multiple paths for the current to
Current through every series
component is equal.
Voltage across every parallel
component is equal.
Total resistance is sum of
Total resistance is equal to the
reciprocal of the sum of the
Sum of all voltage drops is equal
component resistances' reciprocals.
to total applied voltage (KVL).
When measuring amperage, use
series connection. -->
MA is always < 1
The study of the effects of work, heat flow, and energy on a system. Thermal energy: Kinetic energy in transit from one object to another due to temperature differences.
Temperature: the average kinetic energy of particles in an object.
WHEEL AND AXLE
Effort and resistance distances are the Fixed pulley: IMA 1
diameters of the wheel and axle.
Movable pulley: IMA 2
Effort distance = slope
Effort distance: Wedge length
Resistance = vertical
Effort resistance: Wedge width
Absolute Zero: 0 K = -273OC
Thermal equilibrium: when touching objects within a system reach the same temperature. Work can't be done.
LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Zeroth Law: Commutative property
First Law: Thermal energy can change form and location, but it cannot be created or destroyed. Can be increased within a system by adding thermal energy or performing work.
Second Law: Entropy is the measure of how evenly distributed heat is in a system. The total amount of energy in the universe does not change, but the Resistance distance = Pitch = the distance between threads. Traveled by availability of that energy constantly decreases. one rotation of the screw.
Effort arm distance is screw head, or length of wrench if using one.
GEARS, BELTS, AND SPROCKETS
Convection: Energy moving through movement of warmed matter.
Gears travel in opposite directions
Conduction: Energy moving from particle to particle.
Belt systems and sprockets travel in the same direction
Radiation: Energy traveling through a vacuum. EM waves.
output teeth output diameter input angular velocity
input diameter output angular velocity
WORK, ENERGY, AND POWER
R-Value = material’s ability to resist heat. U-Value = ability to conduct heat
NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION
1) An object in a state of rest or uniform motion will continue to be so unless acted upon by another force.
1 joule (work) = 1 Newton (force) * 1 meter (parallel distance)
2) Force = Mass x Acceleration
1 watt (power) = 1 joule (work) / 1 second (time)
3) For every action force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force
Forms of energy: Potential, kinetic, chemical, radiant, electrical. Conductors: 1-3 valance electrons
Semiconductors: 4 valance electrons
Insulators: 5-8 valence electrons
CURRENT, VOLTAGE, AND RESISTANCE
Scalar = magnitude only. Vector = magnitude and direction
Moment of inertia: Mathematical property of crosssection (in4). Stiffness of an object related to shape. Higher MoI = greater resistance
Current (amperes): flow of electric charge. Current is only there when circuit is completed.
Modulus of Elasticity (E): Stiffness of object...