CIRCUITS

SERIES CIRCUITS

Ratio of resistance and effort forces

Work = Force * Distance

IMA=

effort distance

resistance distance

AMA = resistance force

effort force

If MA > 1: Less effort force; greater effort

distance

If MA < 1: Greater effort force; less effort

distance

Moment = Force * Distance

Static Equilibrium: Effort Moment = Resistance Moment

Torque: A force that produces or tends to produce rotation or torsion.

SIMPLE MACHINES

Series circuits are connected end- Parallel circuits have both ends of to-end with a single path for current the components connected together, to flow.

with multiple paths for the current to

flow.

Current through every series

component is equal.

Voltage across every parallel

component is equal.

Total resistance is sum of

component resistances.

Total resistance is equal to the

reciprocal of the sum of the

Sum of all voltage drops is equal

component resistances' reciprocals.

to total applied voltage (KVL).

MULTIMETER USAGE

1

PARALLEL CIRCUITS

When measuring amperage, use

series connection. -->

CLASS 3

MA is always < 1

THERMODYNAMICS

The study of the effects of work, heat flow, and energy on a system. Thermal energy: Kinetic energy in transit from one object to another due to temperature differences.

Temperature: the average kinetic energy of particles in an object.

WHEEL AND AXLE

PULLEY

Effort and resistance distances are the Fixed pulley: IMA 1

diameters of the wheel and axle.

Movable pulley: IMA 2

INCLINED PLANE

WEDGE

Effort distance = slope

Effort distance: Wedge length

Resistance = vertical

Effort resistance: Wedge width

SCREW

Absolute Zero: 0 K = -273OC

Thermal equilibrium: when touching objects within a system reach the same temperature. Work can't be done.

LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

Zeroth Law: Commutative property

First Law: Thermal energy can change form and location, but it cannot be created or destroyed. Can be increased within a system by adding thermal energy or performing work.

Second Law: Entropy is the measure of how evenly distributed heat is in a system. The total amount of energy in the universe does not change, but the Resistance distance = Pitch = the distance between threads. Traveled by availability of that energy constantly decreases. one rotation of the screw.

THERMAL TRANSFER

Effort arm distance is screw head, or length of wrench if using one.

GEARS, BELTS, AND SPROCKETS

Convection: Energy moving through movement of warmed matter.

Gears travel in opposite directions

Conduction: Energy moving from particle to particle.

Belt systems and sprockets travel in the same direction

Radiation: Energy traveling through a vacuum. EM waves.

output teeth output diameter input angular velocity

=

=

input teeth

input diameter output angular velocity

output torque

input torque

WORK, ENERGY, AND POWER

R-Value = material’s ability to resist heat. U-Value = ability to conduct heat

STATICS

NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

1) An object in a state of rest or uniform motion will continue to be so unless acted upon by another force.

1 joule (work) = 1 Newton (force) * 1 meter (parallel distance)

2) Force = Mass x Acceleration

1 watt (power) = 1 joule (work) / 1 second (time)

3) For every action force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force

Forms of energy: Potential, kinetic, chemical, radiant, electrical. Conductors: 1-3 valance electrons

Semiconductors: 4 valance electrons

Insulators: 5-8 valence electrons

CURRENT, VOLTAGE, AND RESISTANCE

VECTORS

Scalar = magnitude only. Vector = magnitude and direction

STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

Moment of inertia: Mathematical property of crosssection (in4). Stiffness of an object related to shape. Higher MoI = greater resistance

Current (amperes): flow of electric charge. Current is only there when circuit is completed.

Modulus of Elasticity (E): Stiffness of object...