Safety in the construction industry has always been a major issue. Wherever reliable records are available, construction is found to be one of the most dangerous on safety and health criteria, particularly in developing countries. Though much improvement in construction safety has been achieved, the industry still continues to lag behind most other industries with regard to safety. In developing countries, safety rules usually do not exist; if any exist, the regulatory authority is usually very weak in implementing such rules effectively. Further, work hazards at the construction workplace are either not perceived at all, or perceived to be less dangerous than what they actually are. The safety climate of any organisation consists of employees' attitudes towards, and perceptions of, health and safety behaviour. Construction workers' attitudes towards safety are influenced by their perceptions of risk, management, safety rules and procedures. Although research into safety climate has continued for more than two decades, there is still no universally accepted theory of safety climate. Nevertheless, positive correlation exists between workers' safe behaviour and safety climate in construction site environments. Workers' attitudes and behaviours discernible in safety climate, could be regarded as the micro-elements of an organisation, which themselves are determined by macro-elements of safety management systems and practices. Thus, it could be argued that management safety systems and practices permeate down through the organisation to the workforce. Classic construction safety management functions (such as recruitment, training, supervision, etc.) are determined by different conceptions of the role and nature of management effectiveness. These conceptions are underpinned by related cultural values. Therefore, national culture can be a key characteristic that may manifest itself in varying approaches to the safe work behavior. Pakistan is a developing...
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