SACRED TRAINING INSTITUTE
PRESENTED BY: IJAKAA ETYANG MOSES
LECTURER: JOHNSTONE TUNGANI
JANUARY TO MARCH 2013
What is unemployment?
•According to Bureau of labor statistics (BLS) it is defined as people who do not have a job, have actively looked for work in the past four weeks, and are currently available for work. •Refers to a situation where people are capable and will to work at the going wage rates but cannot secure jobs. (Kenya Institute of Education (KIE) Business studies Form 3 •Is a condition of being unemployed (Collins paper work English dictionary. Bank of English). •Is the condition of one who is capable of working, actively seeking work, but is unable to find any work(encyclopedia bratanica,2012) •Also defined by Richard curtains as an economic condition marked by the fact that actively individual seeking for jobs remain un hired Prevalence of youth unemployment in Kenya
Africa is the world’s youngest continent, as the proportion of youth among the region’s total population is higher than in any other continent. About 36.8 percent of Africa’s work force are youth; and 23.7 per cent in North Africa; particularly affecting young females. In 2009, the youth unemployment rate was at 11.9 per cent in Sub Saharan Africa. High rates of youth unemployment represent both widespread personal misfortune for individuals and a lost opportunity for critical national and global economic development. Unemployment in youth has been shown to have lifelong effects on income and employment stability, because affected young people start out with weaker early-career credentials, and show lower confidence and resilience in dealing with labor market opportunities and setbacks over the course of their working lives. The recent economic crisis has had a disproportionate – and disproportionately long-term – effect on young people. According to the ILO’s Global Employment Trends for Youth, 2011 Update (www.ilo.org), the global youth unemployment rate rose from 11.8 to 12.7 percent between 2008 and 2009, the largest one-year increase on record. In the ten years from 1998 and A CASE STUDY OF YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT IN KENYA 1
2008, youth unemployment increased by a total of 0.2 percent or about 100,000 persons per year; but from 2008 to 2009 it increased by 5.3%, or 4.5 million persons, in a single year. By the end of 2010, an estimated 75.8 million young people were unemployed (UN, “World Youth Report,” 2012). At the same time, the labor force participation rate for young people has continued its downward trend: after declining from 53.8 to 50.1 percent between 1998 and 2008, it fell to 48.8 percent by 2011. (ILO Global Employment Trends for Youth, 2011 Update) The youth unemployment challenge is particularly intense in the developed world. In Spain, a majority of youth (51.4%) was unemployed as of the third quarter of 2011, and the figure was nearly as high in Greece (46.6%). The youth unemployment rate in Portugal was 30.7%, and in the UK 22%. (“The Jobless Young: Left Behind,” The Economist, September 10, 2011). In the developing world, high youth unemployment represents lost potential for national economic transformation, and high numbers of economically frustrated youth may contribute to social instability. Employment remains the main concern of youth in the region. Sub-regional and country variations are important to note. For example, youth unemployment rates in Malawi and Rwanda are under 5 percent, whereas rates reach above 20 percent in Ghana, Zambia and Zimbabwe and above 30 percent in Mauritius, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland, Algeria and South Africa (where unemployment rates climb to 60 percent for young women). The exceptionally high unemployment rates in Africa can be interpreted as one of the main factors behind the revolutionary activity and recent civil...