Research (Tobacco)

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BRINE SHRIMP (Artemia salina) LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF TOBACCO (Nicotiana Tabacum) LEAF EXTRACT

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A Research Study submitted to the
Research Center of Alabel National Science High School
Regional Science High School for Region XII
Alabel Sarangani Province

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Submitted By:
JIEANN VALERIE APIADO
IVORY MANCERA
THEA DIZON RAFAL
Fourth Year – Sapphire
Researchers

Submitted To:
SHIELA P. BUTIL, MST
Adviser

February 4, 2012
1
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study
The tobacco plant, Nicotiana, has probably been accountable for more fatality than any other shrub. Nowadays, tobacco smoking is causing over 3 million deaths a year worldwide, and if current fumigation development continues, the annual mortality will exceed 10 million by around 2030. In addition to this the mortality from cancers caused by oral uses and the death toll will still be greater. (http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/tobac-tabac/fact-fait/tobac-tabac-eng.php) (December 18, 2012) Tobacco is a leafy plant that is develops in warm climates, after it is gathered, it is dried, ground up, and used in different ways. Tobacco is a plant from the Solanaceae family, better known as Nicotiana (genus). The Solanaceae family comprises some 2,000 species, including herbaceous plants, bushes, trees and vines. Several fruits and vegetables are from this family. This tobacco are made up of many chemicals; Nicotine, Chlorophyll, Water, Sugars and Minerals. (http://healthliteracy.worlded.org/docs/tobacco/Unit1/1what_is.html) (‘December 19, 2012) Scientific Research confirms that its active ingredient is Nicotine, which has a number of important therapeutic effects: Firstly, it’s a muscle relaxant. Secondly, it can be used to control some intestinal parasites and worms. Thirdly, Nicotine is also an efficient insecticide and can be used as a spray on vegetable.The brine shrimp lethality assay is considered a useful tool for preliminary assessment of toxicity. It has also been suggested for screening pharmacological activities in plant extracts. 2

Artemia (Brine Shrimp) is found as “Standard” organisms in measuring toxicity, it is have a sensitive indicator species, and it is an acceptable alternative for measuring the toxicity of mammals. There are both male and female brine shrimp. When it is viewed using microscope, you can see its elongated shape and eleven pairs of limbs that give this organism a shrimp-like shape. (http://saltaquarium.about.com/od/diyfeedersfoods/a/aabrineshrimpgr.htm) (December 19, 2012) Even of its size, the adult brine shrimp (Artemia salina) is a highly well-known aquatic animal for being a food source for fishes and crustaceans raised in home aquariums, aquaculture systems, and also in laboratories(Deurr,2008). It such-like a fine-grained brown substance but in reality the substance is thousands of cysts—eggs surrounded by safely related cases. These cysts will hatch into shrimp nauplii within a few hours when added to water. (http://seagrant.gso.uri.edu/factsheets/931brine.html) (November 16, 2012)

B. 3
Objectives of the Study
This study has the following objectives:
a. To identify and compare the mortality rate of Brine Shrimp Assay after 24 hours and 6 hours at 3 levels of sample concentration using the Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaf extract. b. To determine the toxicity of Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaf extract on brine shrimps. C. Hypothesis of the study

a. Hi: Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) shows significant effects on brine shrimps. b. Ho: Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) does not show significant effects on brine shrimps. D. Significance of the Study

The researchers used Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) in conducting this Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay to determine its level of toxicity, that will help the next researchers as one of their sources or bases for their further studies about tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)....
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