In recent years, much research in education has focused on the concept of motivation (Ames & Ames, 1984, 1985, 1989). There are also many studies in the literature which have attempted to increase primary school student’s attitute toward reading (Dwyer & Reed, 1989; Healy, 1965). What arouse a primary school student to read is a very interesting issue. Many researcher also try to find out the stimulate that make a primary school student to read. Either parents or teachers also hope their children or their students can read more to improve their academic standard and mostly they will offer some rewards to motivate them. However, the use of rewards in educational as a way to improve children motivation is a controversial issue. Educational psychologists are also disputing whether school should use extrinsic reward to encourage children on reading. There is evidence show that it is a bad idea because when the reward disappears, the motivation of children to read also gone. In contrast, there is also evidence show that it is a good idea because the extrinsic reward can make the behavior to persist. According to incentive theory, external reward can motivate people to do certain things. Studies also show that when an action done and get rewarded at that time, the effect is greater. The purpose of this research is to find out the effect of immediately extrinsic reward in motivate primary school student on reading.
An incentive theory define that our behavior is caused by the environment, external factor or stimuli. However, it does not mean that those factors will always motivate our behavior, only it will affect our behavior. This theory acts when an external stimuli serve as goals toward which pulls people in certain action. This theory can relate to Skinner’s reinforcement theory. According to Skinner, human behavior is under the control of external rewards. People do certain things is to obtain the reward, to get something. For example, student study is to get a degree certificate. Regardless how, this theory give an idea that the motivation is something external, not internal.
Cognitive is an important factor when relate it to incentive. According to Rotter’s expectancy-value theory, behavior is the result of our expectations of achieving goals and how important the goals have for us. This theory argued that people are goal-oriented beings, what behavior they perform in response is to achieve or get something. Mostly people evaluate behavior based on what they expect the outcome to be and what value they place on the outcome. This theory show that there are a relationship between stimulus and response on affect our cognitive behavior. As Skinner proposed that our behavior toward certain action is not exactly influenced by the history of reinforcement but is our expectation of reinforcement lead us.
In this experimental study, the immediately extrinsic reward become an important factor to affect children’s motivation on reading. The extrinsic reward is an independent variable in this research. The independent variable will serve as an important variable to enhance and control primary school student’s motivation on reading. However, the behavior of primary school student toward certain action become a dependent variable in this research. The control variables in this study are either give reward to children or do not give reward to children will affect the result of children’s behavior on reading. Acording to incentive theory, Skinner’s reinforcement theory, Rotter’s expectancy theory, people’s behavior is enhanced by external stimuli and reward. Studies also show that humans are more likely to persist when they can get reward immediately. Based from those theories, immediately extrinsic reward can motivate primary student and enhance their behavior on reading.
Literature support that the intangible reward and effort attribution...