Research Proposal

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 95
  • Published : December 2, 2012
Open Document
Text Preview
Research Proposal

Plymouth Business School
Coursework Coversheet

Individual work

Surname:
First Name:
Student number:
Module code: MAR 310
Module name: Research Skills for International Business
Deadline date:

Contents
1. Background………………………………………………………………………….3 2. Research question and Objectives………………………………………………..4 2.1.

Research question……………………………………………………………...4

2.2.

Research objectives…………………………………………………………….4

3. Critical review of relevant academic literature…………………………………....5 3.1.

Selected academic literature…………………………………………………...5

3.2.

Interpretation of the literature: Methods of study, sources of data and their usefulness for this proposal…………………………………………………...6

4. Methodology………………………………………………………………………...9 4.1.

Research philosophies………………………………………………………...9

4.2.

Study approach………………………………………………………………...10

4.3.

Research strategy……………………………………………………………...10

4.3.1. Action research………………………………………………………………...10 4.3.2. Case study……………………………………………………………………...11 4.3.3. Survey…………………………………………………………………………..11 4.3.4. Time horizons………………………………………………………………….11 5. References…………………………………………………………………………13

2

Oil pollution prevention: are the existing policies effective and to what extent do measures need to change?

1. Background
In the last 40 years shipping has grown to be a truly global industry and transportation of oil has been an enormous contributing factor to that. In its annual report BP estimated that the global production of oil in 2010 reached 3913,7 million tonnes, whereas oil trade was estimated to be 53,5 million barrels a day (BP, 2011). The mentioned numbers represent potential damage to the global environment.

Although shipping claims to be the most efficient and environmentally friendly industry of transporting goods, some figures show the contrary. Maritime industry accounts for 10% of the annual amount of the oil that enters oceans (Global Marine Oil Pollution Gateway, 2005). The amount of oil lost as a result of tanker incidents reached 5,65 million tonnes since 1970ies (the figure estimates tracked accidents only) (ITOPF, 2009). Just to emphasise the importance of the problem, it is worth saying that the total tonnage spilled equals 8 Gulf of Mexico accidents. In the light of incurred accidents, like the Torrey Canyon, the Erika, the Exxon Valdez, the Prestige and many others, the environmental protection has become a hot topic among the global community. In order to prevent and regulate oil pollution new policies and guidelines, such as OPA 90, MARPOL, BUNKERS Convention, UNCLOS, CLC convention and many others, have been produced. However, many authors, such as Karim (2010) and Roe (2010), outline the difficulty of implementation of common-themed policies on countries with multilevel governance and different development levels, which is one of the many problems that create difficulties for policy effectiveness.

3

2. Research question and objectives

2.1.

Research question

Oil pollution prevention: are the existing policies effective and to what extent do measures need to change?

2.2.

Research objectives

1) Examine existing policies of improving environmental safety and security, and analyse how effective those are in reducing the risk by collecting qualitative and quantitative data.
2) Define what and to which extent influences effectiveness of existing policies. 3) Examine


International Regimes for the Compensation of Oil-Pollution Damage and define their contribution to the environmental regulations:



Analyse economical instruments for reducing oil pollution.

4) Form the conclusion about policy effectiveness and determine: 

What is already done?



To what extent it should be changed?



If there are any methods that can be implicated to improve the situation?

4

3. Critical review of relevant academic literature

3.1.

Selected academic literature

Birkland, T. A....
tracking img