Research Proposal

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INTRODUCTION
Introduction:
With less than 0.1 percent of the population estimated to be HIV positive Bangladesh is a low HIV prevalence country. The country faces a concentrated epidemic, and it’s very low HIV prevalence rate is partly due to prevention efforts, focusing on men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSWs), and injecting drug users (IDUs). In Bangladesh the first case of HIV was detected in 1989, according to NASSP 2008, Government of Bangladesh source, till December 2008, there were 1495 reported cases of HIV and 476 cases of AIDS, among them 165 died, Last surveillance conducted in 2007 found national prevalence of HIV <1%, this makes Bangladesh a low prevalence country. However, there are specific socio cultural conditions that have the potential to increase the vulnerability of the country to HIV/ AIDS. HIV/ AIDS prevention programs have successfully reached 71.6 percent of commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Bangladesh, according to the 2005 United Nations’ General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) country report. However, only 23.8 percent of CSWs reported using a condom with their most recent client and just 23.3 percent both correctly identified ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV and rejected major misconceptions about HIV transmission, other factors contributing to Bangladesh’s HIV/ AIDS vulnerability include cross border interaction with high prevalence regions in Burma and northeast India, low condom use among the general population, and a general lack of knowledge about HIV/ AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Bangladesh also has a high tuberculosis (TB) burden, with 102 new cases per 100,000 people in 2005, according to the world health organization.HIV infects about 0.1 percent of adult TB patients in Bangladesh and HIV- TB co- infections complicate treatment and care for both diseases. Surveillances showed that in central Dhaka HIV prevalence among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) rose from 1.4% to 7% (up to 10.8% in a particular locality) during last four years. Simultaneously recent Behavioral Surveillance Survey (BSS) data indicate an increase in risk behaviors such as sharing of injecting equipment and a decline in consistent condom use in sexual encounters between IDUs and female sex workers. BSS data also indicate that the IDU population is well integrated in to the surrounding urban community, socially and sexually, thus raising concern about the spread of HIV infection. Over the five surveillance rounds conducted in Bangladesh between 1998 and 2004, to total HIV prevalence remained below 1% According to the data published by National AIDS/ STD programme (NASP) on December 1st 2009, the current situation of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh is shown in the table below. | As of 2008| 2009| As of 2009|

New HIV| | 205| |
Total HIV| 1495| | 1745|
New AIDS| | 143| |
Total AIDS| 476| | 619|
New AIDS death | | 39| |
Total AIDS death| 165| | 204|
Table1: Bangladesh HIV data 2009
The epidemics in many countries of South Asia are now entering a new phase. One of the first populations to be affected by HIV in South Asia was injecting durg users. In areas where drug injection has been long established, such as Manipur in north – eastern India, HIV prevalence rates of over 40 percent have been recorded for several years. Several hundred thousand people infected during the explosive start of epidemics are becoming ill and are undergoing treatment. The treatment of infections becomes a great burden for the country concerned, because HIV/ AIDS requires long term and effective medical care, periodical hospital based care and trained manpower to provide comprehensive healthcare services. For countries where resources are scarce, easy access to treatment and care remain very questionable and prohibitive for many PLWHAs. In Bangladesh the situation of human rights in relation to PLWHA seems critical. As PLWHAs are not...
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