Research Paper on Type 2 Diabetes

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Chapter One: Literature Review

1.1 Introduction

The worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes is skyrocketing alarmingly to epidemic proportions. According to King, Aubert and Herman (1998), in the year 2000 there were 150 million people with type 2 diabetes worldwide, and this number is expected to double by 2025. This explosive increase in type 2 diabetes prevalence is also associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. (Dankner, Abdul-Ghani, Gerber, Chetit, Wainstein and Raz, 2007). This global increase in diabetes will occur because of population ageing and growth, and because of increasing trends towards obesity, unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyles. Worldwide, according to the WHO Diabetes Action Now booklet (2004), there are 3.2 million deaths attributable to diabetes every year. This means 8,700 deaths every day and six deaths every minute. A study of the Irish Diabetes Prevalence Working Group (Balanda, Fahy, Jordan and McArdle, 2006) using the Diabetes Population Prevalence (PBS) Model estimates that 129,052 persons in the Republic of Ireland have adult type 2 diabetes. This corresponds to 4.3% of the population. Nutritional intervention is an integral part of diabetes care however patients find it difficult to comply with dietary regimes. Yannakoulia, (2006) identifies poor understanding of diet-disease associations, misinformation and lack of social support as some of the barriers to dietary adherence in type 2 diabetes. Using a combination of the search terms “type 2 diabetes mellitus”, “adherence” and “diet” an electronic subject search was conducted utilising the databases CINAHL, ScienceDirect and PubMed. Limits applied to the search were journals from 2000-2010, peer reviewed, research articles and English language. A further search adding the keywords “family” “support” and “diet” uncovered a wealth of results. Six key articles emerged, which were reviewed under the themes (i) lack of dietary knowledge and...
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