Research Paper on Title Ix

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Title IX Research Paper December 11 Daniel Rose

History TITLE VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 law was what many civil rights activists had been lobbying for over many years. Title VI was made to end segregation and discrimination on the basis of color, gender, and nationality for employment. However, education was not included in TITLE VI, which caused Dr. Bernice R. Sandler, a senior scholar at the Women’s Research and Education Institute in Washington, DC, to still have to fight for her job at the University of Maryland. Dr. Sandler sought out a faculty position for which she was particularly well qualified for, but was denied the position because she came on "too strong for a woman." In 1969, Dr. Sandler gathered statistics showing how female employment at the university had gone down as qualified women were replaced by men. With the help of the National Organization for Women (NOW) and the Women’s Equity Action League (WEAL), she filed sexual discrimination complaints to 250 institutions of the Executive Order. This is one of the events which led to implementation TITLE IX. -------------------------------------------------

During 1970, there were congressional hearings on sexual discrimination. These hearings resulted in the addition of TITLE IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which amended TITLE VI of the Civil Rights Act, says, “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance…” Congresswoman Patsy Mink, a Japanese-American democrat from Hawaii, wrote the TITLE IX of Education Amendments of 1972 . In 1972, President Johnson was persuaded by the National Organization for Women (NOW) to make it clearer that women shouldn’t be discriminated; so gave the Executive Order 11246, which required all entities receiving federal contracts to end discrimination in hiring. Since then, Title IX has been affected by various new legislation, executive orders, and judicial review by the Supreme Court, much of which attempted to weaken or undermine Title IX. -------------------------------------------------

In 1974, Senator John Tower introduced the Tower Amendment due to the fear that TITLE IX would “corrupt” men’s sports. The amendment was going to take away TITLE IX’s control over revenue-making sports. The Tower Amendment was rejected within committee, but the Javits Amendment, proposed by Jacob Javits, was accepted and put in place of the Tower Amendment. The Javits Amendment stated that the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) must have “reasonable provisions considering the nature of particular sports.” In 1975, the HEW gave the guidelines of how TITLE IX would be enforced, and they gave universities 3 years to comply with TITLE IX. Title IX was still disliked by people who believed that it would corrupt revenue-making sports and re-proposed the Tower Amendment, which was once again rejected.. -------------------------------------------------

Also, the HEW issued the Elimination of Sex Discrimination in Athletics Programs, which discussed the discrimination on the basis of sex in the operation of interscholastic, intercollegiate club of intramural athletic program offered by an educational institution; (2) equal opportunity in the provision of athletic scholarships; (3) the requirement that by July 21, 1976 educational institutions evaluate and correct current policies and practices. The National College Athletic Association (NCAA) found Title IX to be troublesome and claimed that it was illegal in 1976. -------------------------------------------------

The HEW was split up into two bureaucratic agencies in 1980; the...
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