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Motor Vehicle Air Pollution:
Public Health Impact

Introduction:

Air is an important natural resource providing the basis of life on earth. The air in the atmosphere provides oxygen to plants and animals by virtue of which they are able to live. It is therefore important to have good quality air for various activities. However, this is becoming increasingly difficult in view of large scale pollution caused by the industrialization of society, intensification of agriculture, introduction of motorized vehicles and explosion of the population.

Kaifu (2011) outlined the sources of air pollution to be the various locations, activities or factors which are responsible for the release of pollutants into the atmosphere. He defined a pollutant to be any substance (solid, liquid or gas) in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment. Pollutants may be natural or man-made and can be further classified as primary or secondary. Usually, primary pollutants are directly emitted from processes such as ash from volcanic eruption, monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulphur dioxide released from factories. On the other hand, secondary pollutants are not emitted directly rather, they are formed in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. Besides, some pollutants may be both primary and secondary that is they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants.

The major contributor of air pollution is the motor vehicles in urban highways. This can be observed every time smoke billows from every car's exhaust pipe. When cars burn gasoline, they emit pollutants. Gasoline fumes escape into the air even when someone pumps gasoline into his or her fuel tanks. Cars rely from the fossil fuels, which constitute most of the cars on the road, are powered by a combustion reaction that produces a black smoke. This black smoke is emitted back into the atmosphere, which can cause detrimental effects sufficiently large numbers. Health problems is one of the most severe consequences.

There are four major pollutants that come from cars:
a) A car emits carbon monoxide when the carbon in fuel does not burn completely. b) A car's exhaust emits hydrocarbons, a toxic compound of hydrogen and carbon. c) When fuel burns, nitrogen and oxygen react with each other and form nitrogen oxides (NOx). d) Particulate matter -- small particles of foreign substances -- in the air contributes to atmospheric haze and can damage people’s lungs.

The purpose of this paper is to define the problem about the air pollution produced by the motor vehicle. We as humans, depend on the air around us to live, without it, we would die. Although we rely on this as an essential source of living, it is still not being protected that’s why it caused pollution on air we breathe and is not safe in our health. The chemicals produced by the motor vehicles are the major source of air pollution. This analysis is appropriate because it is emerging dilemma not just in the country but also around the world. Although the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) declared cars "mobile sources" of pollution, they are not the only culprits. Big trucks, bulldozers and other, ships and boats, trains and even snow blowers pollute the air. The percentage of air pollution caused by cars is higher in urban areas and higher still near major highways. The importance of this problem is to increase the awareness of the people especially those who are living in urban areas from the black smoke produced by fossil fuels that the vehicles used and how they can cope with it. The study will focus on the air pollutants caused by black smokes released from the vehicles and the illness it can cause. The results of the review will be applied through reality living – ban those vehicles that exhibit the cause of this pollution or transform those vehicles into environmentally-friendly means of transportation, strict compliance of emission...
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