In Partial Fulfilment of
the Requirements in Research
To be submitted to:
Mr. Carlito B. Rosales
Mr. Dave Lorenz A. Francisco
CORPUS, Christine Jolene B.
HAEL, Kristelle Faith M.
MACHATE, Cyril John J.
SHIRAI, Trixia Ayumi G.
VIRLY, Blanche Meryll C.
IV - D
I. Background of the Study
The black porous residue obtained by the destructive distillation of animal or vegetable matter in a limited supply of air. The basic atomic structure of the char is independent of the precursor, although the larger scale morphology may differ. It is important not to confuse charcoal with other forms of impure non-crystalline carbon such as coke and soot. Although coke, like charcoal, is produced by solid-phase pyrolysis (usually of bituminous coal), it is distinguished from charcoal in that a fluid phase is formed during carbonisation. Used Engine Oil
Motor oil or engine oil is an oil used for lubrication of various internal combustion engines. The main function is to lubricate moving parts; it also cleans, inhibits corrosion, improves sealing, and cools the engine by carrying heat away from moving parts.
Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon existing in three isomeric forms, all three being colourless flammable volatile liquids used as solvents and in the manufacture of synthetic resins, dyes, and insecticides; dimethylbenzene. It has a formula of C6H4(CH3)2 and is also called xylol.
1. Charcoal will be effective as a pigment for the white board marker. 2. Used engine oil will be effective as an alternative for petroleum as a solvent for the white board marker. Null Hypotheses:
1. Charcoal will not be effective as a pigment for the white board marker. 2. Used engine oil will not be effective as an alternative for petroleum as a solvent for the white board marker.
III. Significance of the Study
Most white board markers contain Xylene, thus resulting to many breathing impairments. A number of people have had lung cancer, asthma, and other respiratory system related sickness due to various reasons but lately white board markers with xylene has been added to the factors that cause respiratory failure. We came up with this research to help lessen the cases of people having respiratory ailments; we want to create something less harmful and is environment friendly at the same time.
Related Literature and Studies
Charcoal is a wood that have been cooked thoroughly, but not reduced to ash or the point of disintegration. Mostly scrap, charcoal is made by putting the materials into a kiln, where the moisture is removed. Then, it is cooked in a cast iron retort oven. These ovens work with little oxygen and turn the materials into carbon that we burn to cook with. (http://www.napoleongrills.com/faq/charcoa-definition/) Charcoal is made by charring wood in the absence of air. You can simply make it by filling a pot or a can with pieces of dry wood, closing the pot with a lid and putting it on a moderate fire. Soon you will observe smoke escaping from under the lid. The smoke easily catches fire and burns quietly like gas, with a yellow flame. (http://www.musketeer.ch/blackpowder/charcoal.html) II. Engine Oil
Engine oil is an oil used to lubricate the moving parts of a motor. It is a substance capable of reducing friction by making surfaces smooth or slippery and is not miscible with water.
III. Whiteboard marker
Whiteboards have, for the most part, replaced the traditional chalk board in the classroom setting. Potential for exposures to individual users has been investigated. For one user, even with heavy use, the maximum solvent exposure measured is <2 ppm of solvent. (2003, Stopford, W.) A white board marker has a cover, a body, a marker nib, an ink pad, a cap and a...