Research Paper

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 160
  • Published : January 12, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
Semantics (Keywords and Concepts)
1.

Basic ideas in semantics


Semantics



Speaker meaning versus sentence meaning



Meaningfulness versus informativeness



Theory and Semantic Theory



Knowing the meaning of a word

2.

Sentences, utterances and propositions


Sentence and utterance



Conventions for representing sentence and utterance in written language



Proposition and thought



Compare and contrast sentences, utterances and propositions



Form

(declarative,

interrogative,

imperative)

and

function

(statement,

question, order,…)
3.

Reference and sense
• The same expression can be used to refer to different things (deictic words) • Two different expressions can have the same referent (the Morning Star and the Evening Star to refer to the planet Venus)

• Constant (invariable) referent (the sun, the moon,…)
• Words that do not refer to anything (almost, probable, and, if, above,…) • Homonymy versus Polysemy
• Context

4.

Referring expressions


Referring expression



Ambiguity (referring expression or not)



Opaque context



Equative sentence

5.

Predicates


Predicator versus predicate



The degree of a predicate



Identity relation

6.

Predicates, Referring Expressions, and Universe of Discourse •

Generic Sentence



Universe of discourse

7.

Deixis and Defineteness


Deictic words (deictics)



Reported speech and deixis



The context of an utterance



Defineteness

8.

Words and things: extensions and prototypes


Extension



Compare and contrast sense, extension and reference



Prototype



Ostensive definition



Compare and contrast referent, extension and prototype

9.

Sense Properties and Stereotypes


Sense properties of sentences (analytic, synthetic and contradiction)



Necessary Condition versus Sufficient Set of Conditions



Stereotype



Compare and coıntrast extension, prototype, sense and stereotype



The sense of an expression (its sense properties + its sense relations)



Sense relations (polysemy, hyponymy, synonymy, antonymy,…)

10.

Sense Relations (Identity and similarity of sense)



Synonymy/Synonym



In considering the sense of a word, we abstract away from any stylistic, social, or dialectal associations the word may have. We concentrate on what has been called the cognitive or conceptual meaning of a word.



Paraphrase



Hyponymy/hyponym



Superordinate term



Co-hyponyms



Hyponymy and synonymy



Entailment



Paraphrases and entailment



The Basic Rule of Sense Inclusion



The Basic Rule of Sense Inclusion does not work in all cases (“not” and “all”)



Euphemism



Taxonomy

tracking img