Research Paper

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INTRODUCTION
* BACKGROUND
Trauma is a situation that can affect a human mind to such an extent that it could limit the thinking power of human mind. The major causes of trauma are violence and aggression that significantly affects the people everywhere. In a city it could be clearly seen that there are increased cases of drug abuse, fights, rapes, bomb threats, kidnapping, gang rivalry and shootouts with deadly weapons. These incidents have a tragic affect on human’s mind and their life. All the incidents listed above results in violent acts and have a major impact on the society as whole and hamper the normal course of actions that take place in a city or a country. There was a survey conducted by the government in late 90s to understand the level at which these incidents are increasing everyday. The survey report clearly indicated a sharp rise in these incidents everyday. Since, people do not have a control on their anger and aggression; therefore it leads to tragic ends. As a result, to lessen the effects of the incidents, the government became strategize and carried out such manuals which could guide the people in the country as how to deal with the situation when they arise. The strategies also include workshops that could counsel the people all across and also the teams are trained to help people in such situations immediately. Purpose of the Manual: The main objective of the manual is to lay down the guidelines for the Incident: Bomb Threat in a city and also inform the people about the various steps to be taken and the services to be informed immediately for rescue operation. * Foster and create a safe environment in the country.

* Deal with emergency efficiently by the means of a preset design of action. * Take a rapid action in the occurrence of a critical incident. * Reduce panic and misunderstanding by organizing preset guidelines that will ensure protection and safety measures. * Create and keep up a critical incident administration panel.

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Section One:
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Understanding Critical Incidents

* Critical Incident- Introduction
Over the years, the countries are expected to have an immediate reaction to any critical incident that is talking place in the country/city and these are predetermined that the government of a country has a plan of action already prepared to immediately take steps to bind the affects of the critical incident. Cited: According to the Federal Occupational Health (FOH), a critical incident is: “A traumatic event that has sufficient power to overwhelm an individual’s ability to cope”. An individual is under two types of pressure in a traumatic situation that are physical and psychological in nature. Within a city, an incident could be as critical that it could disrupt the running of a city and the life of the people residing. In this particular paper we talk about Bomb Threat, and this is one incident that has an impact on the overall life in a country. A crisis is described in three following types:

• Unexpected crises — an instantaneous and unanticipated possibility. • Smoldering crisis — an enduring, decaying condition, which usually commence little and then gets bigger or more compound with time. • Bizarre crisis — an odd unforeseen incident that does not fit into either of the above. The major reasons for any critical incident may be:

• An intended, deliberate action,
• An unintended deed, or
• An action of nature.

* Critical Incident Life Cycle

It seems unbelievable when discussed about the existence of life cycle of an incident because no one agrees to this fact. But it is a true fact that critical incidents do have a life cycle, if the required immediate actions are not being taken to minimize the regularity of such incidents. If the incidents are managed in an organized way then its impact on the lives of the people...
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