A mushroom is the fleshy, spore bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground for on soil or on its food source.The word mushroom is often applied to those fungi(Basidiomycota, Ascomycota) that have a stipe(stem),a cap(pileus) and gills(lamella,sing.lamella) or pores on the underside of the cap.mushroom are heterotrophic in nature and hence are saprophyte may be parasite or facultative.
Pleurotus sps. is known as oyster mushroom in English.it is umbrella like generally white in color but yellowish strain are also found now a days.it can be found in natural condition with wide range of climatic diversity except extremities(hot,cold and dry).In kathmandu valley, it can be grown in all season except winter and in terai except summer. Pleurotus spp. is well known as kanya chayau in Nepal which is easily grown in warm and humid climate of tropics and subtropics. Pleurotus species are characterized by the rapidity of the mycelial growth and high saprophytic colonization activity on cellulosic substrates. This mushroom is soft and white when the weather is hot and greyish in cold weather. Till now, we found four species of pleurotus..as P. circinatus,P. nepalensis,P. ostreatus and P. sajar-caju. which has been cultivated commercially. This mushroom is getting popularity because it can be grown in temperature more than Agaricus and less than volvorella. Also it can be grown with less effort, less cost and more production which helps to increase the income status of the people.It is grown indoors, in any available room basement, garage or even an abandoned shed provided there is adequate light and ventilation. Pleurotus sajor-caju is mostly cultivated.
Classification of Pleurotus mushroom:
1.1 Oyster mushroom cultivation in Nepal
Oyster mushroom cultivation was introduced to Nepal in 1981. Research on the proper substrate and climatic conditions for oyster mushroom growing was carried out by the Division of Plant Pathology. Growing Pleurotus sajor-caju on stump and chopped paddy straw packets was successful in Kathmandu in 1982. The technology, which was distributed to farmers in 1984, was so simple, easy to adopt and suitable to the climate of Kathmandu valley that farmers could adopt it quickly. The cultivation practices, which produced quick returns, spread like wildfire. Poor farmers were willing to try mushroom growing on a small scale in order to augment their incomes. The growing of the species P. ostreatus was introduced later in 1998. These days' farmers prefer P. ostreatus because it has higher productivity and can be grown during the winter in Kathmandu. These mushrooms have been grown recently in the Terai districts (a tropic area) during winter and also transported to markets in Kathmandu.
1.2 Climatic Requirement
Oyster mushrooms are often grown without any environmental control. P. sajor-caju is cultivated for the summer crop at Kathmandu (25-30℃ and 80%) and in the hills of Nepal while it is cultivated in the Terai regions during the winter season (22-26℃ and 70%). P. ostreatus is grown during the winter season in Kathmandu and other cool places (5-20℃ and 70%). Some mushroom growers try to grow these two species together. Of course, oyster mushrooms cannot be grown in Terai during the summer (30-40℃ and 70%). The mid hills of Nepal are the most appropriate areas for oyster mushroom production and therefore the mushroom technology has been expanded widely in those villages.
* To be able to know the cultivation practices of oyster mushroom Specific objective:
* To find out the best substrate for oyster mushroom.
* To find out the total yield in given weight of the substrate.
3.0 Methodology of Mushroom cultivation...