Causes and Effects of Job Stress among Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA) Employees in Runde Catchment
ABSTRACT The study sought to investigate the causes and effects of stress among ZINWA employees in Runde Catchment.The purpose of the study was to find out whether poor working conditions, leadership styles, or the issues of occupational health and safety were causing stress among the employees. A sample of 83 employees comprising of people from all sections like accounts, human resources, data and research, planning and water supply operators were selected in a stratified random sampling technique for the purpose of the study. Out of these 25 managed to return the questionnaires on time. The questionnaire is a modification of the Health and Safety Executive [HSE] indicator Tool for tackling work related stress was used as research instrument. The study showed that most employees in ZINWA are dissatisfied with the current working conditions that are prevailing in Runde Catchment.It also revealed that most employees have stress related to demands, change, relationships, control, manager s and peer support and job dissatisfaction. Job dissatisfaction was centered on uncompetitive salaries and poor staff welfare. The research also noted that role based stress was fairly low among the employees. The study recommends that the organization should make positive changes within its management system in order to reduce stress and at the same time improve working conditions of its staff. When stress is reduced this would also improve productivity as tardiness would be reduced. Finally it also recommends that further research be undertaken to establish the extent of health problems among the employees due to stress or other work related illnesses.
This research project is dedicated to my wife, Christina and my three children, Tinashe, Nyasha and Faith whose patience and love made the carrying out of the research a welcome experience.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I have always believed that knowledge is the cumulative experience of thousands of people spanning thousands of years. Besides a book is never the work of one person but a working together of many people. I wish to acknowledge the assistance received from the following people who made it possible for the document to be put together. Firstly I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Regis Chireshe whose constructive criticism and unwavering support guided me in conducting and compiling this dissertation. I would also want to thank the personnel of the Zimbabwe Open University for their unending support and encouragement during the whole study period.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Dedication Acknowledgement Abstract Table of contents List of tables List of appendices CHAPTER ONE
PAGE 2 3 4 5 6 6
Introduction Background To The Study Statement Of The Problem Research Questions/ Sub Problems Purpose Of The Study Hypothesis Assumptions Significance Of The Study Limitations Of The Study Delimitations Definition Of Terms Summary CHAPTER TWO Review Of Related Literature Introduction Working conditions, job satisfaction and stress Leadership and Stress Occupational health and Safety and Stress Stress, Health and Productivity Summary
7 7 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17
18 18 18 27 31 37 44
CHAPTER 3 Research Methodology Introduction Research Design Population Sample And Sampling Procedures Instruments Data Collection Procedure Data Analysis Summary CHAPTER 4 Introduction Data Presentation and Analysis Summary CHAPTER 5 Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations Introduction Discussion Conclusions Recommendations References 45 45 46 47 47 49 50 50 51 52 52
CHAPTER ONE BACKROUND INFORMATION Introduction This chapter is about a research carried out on ZINWA employees in which the causes and effects of job stress were evaluated. Variables such as job satisfaction/dissatisfaction,...
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